qr code generator c# tutorial The two DTEs are Frame Relay and in Objective-C

Print QR in Objective-C The two DTEs are Frame Relay and

The two DTEs are Frame Relay and
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the carrier uses ATM as a transport
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One DTE is a Frame Relay device and the other is an ATM device, and the carrier uses ATM as a transport
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Figure 26-6 shows an example of these two standards FRF5 defines how two Frame Relay devices can send frames back and forth across an ATM backbone, as is shown between RouterA and RouterB With FRF5, the Frame Relay frame
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FIGURE 26-6
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is received by the connected switch The switch figures out which ATM VC is to be used to get the information to the destination and encapsulates the Frame Relay frame into an ATM frame, which is then chunked up into ATM cells When the ATM cells are received by the destination carrier switch, the switch reassembles the ATM cells back into an ATM frame, extracts the Frame Relay frame that was encapsulated, and then looks up the DLCI in its switching table When switching the frame to the next segment, if the local DLCI number is different, the switch changes the DLCI in the header and recomputes the CRC The connection between RouterA and RouterC is an example of an FRF8 connection With FRF8, one DTE is using Frame Relay and the other DTE is using ATM The carrier uses ATM to transport the information between the two DTEs For example, in Figure 26-6, RouterA sends a Frame Relay frame to RouterC The carrier s switch converts the Frame Relay frame into an ATM frame, which is different from what FRF5 does The switch then segments the ATM frame into cells and assigns the correct VPI/VCI address to the cells to get to the remote ATM switch In this example, RouterA thinks it s talking to another Frame Relay device (RouterC) RouterC, on the other hand, thinks it s talking to an ATM device (RouterA)
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Each data VC has a few parameters associated with it that affect its data rate and throughput These values include the following: CIR (committed information rate), BC (committed burst rate), BE (excessive burst rate), and access rate This section covers these four values and how the Frame Relay switch uses them to enforce the traffic contract for the VC CIR is the average contracted rate of a VC measured over a period of time This is the guaranteed rate that the carrier is giving to you, barring any major outages the carrier might experience in its network Two burst rates allow you to go above the CIR limit temporarily, assuming the provider has enough bandwidth in its network to support this temporary burst BC allows you to burst up to a higher average than CIR for a VC, but the time period of the burst is smaller than the time period over which CIR is measured If you send information above the CIR, but below the BC value, the carrier will permit the frame into its network The BE value indicates the maximum rate you are allowed to send into the carrier on a VC Any frames that exceed this value are dropped If you send traffic at a rate between BC and BE, the carrier switch marks the frames as discard eligible, using the 1-bit Discard Eligible (DE) field in the Frame Relay frame header By marking this
26: Frame Relay
bit, the carrier is saying that the frame is allowed in the network; however, as soon as the carrier experiences congestion, these are the first frames that are dropped From the carrier s perspective, frames sent at a rate between BC and BE are bending the rules but will be allowed if enough bandwidth is available for them It is important to point out that each VC has its own CIR, BC, and BE values However, depending on the carrier s implementation of Frame Relay, or how you purchase the VCs, the BC and BE values might not be used In some instances, the BE value defaults to the access rate the speed of the physical connection from the Frame Relay DTE to the Frame Relay DCE This could be a fractional T1 running at, say, 256 Kbps, or a full T1 (1544 Mbps) No matter how many VCs you have, or what their combined CIR values are, you are always limited to the access rate you can t exceed the speed of the physical connection It is a common practice to oversubscribe the speed of the physical connection: this occurs when the total CIR of all VCs exceeds the access rate Basically, you re betting that all VCs will not simultaneously run at their CIRs, but that most will run below their CIR values at any given time, requiring a smaller speed connection to the carrier A Frame Relay setup incurs two basic costs: the cost of each physical connection to the Frame Relay switch and the cost of each VC, which is usually dependent on its rate parameters Figure 26-7 shows an example of how these Frame Relay traffic parameters affect the data rate of a VC The graph shows a linear progression of frames leaving a router s interface on a VC As you can see from this figure, as long as the data rate of the VC is below the CIR/BC values, the Frame Relay switch allows the frames into the Frame Relay network However, those frames (4 and 5) that exceed the BC value will have their DE bits set, which allows the Typically, frames that carrier to drop these frames in times of internal exceed the BC value have their DE bits set congestion Also, any frames that exceed BE by the carrier are dropped: in this example, Frames 6 and 7 are dropped Some carriers don t support BC and BE Instead, they mark all frames that exceed the CIR as discard eligible This means that you can send all your frames into the carrier network at the access rate speed and the carrier will permit them in (after marking the DE bit) All of these options and implementations can make it confusing when you re trying to find the right Frame Relay solution for your network For example, one carrier might sell you a CIR of 0 Kbps, which causes the carrier to permit all your traffic into the network but marks all of the frames
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