qr code generator c# tutorial 26: Frame Relay in Objective-C

Drawer Denso QR Bar Code in Objective-C 26: Frame Relay

26: Frame Relay
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FIGURE 26-9
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Here s the configuration for RouterB:
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RouterB(config)# interface serial 0 RouterB(config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay ietf RouterB(config-if)# frame-relay lmi-type ansi RouterB(config-if)# ip address 19216822 2552552550 RouterB(config-if)# frame-relay map ip 19216821 301 broadcast
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First, notice that the two routers are using different LMI types at each end This is okay, since LMI is used only between the Frame Relay DTE and DCE devices Second, notice that the DLCI numbers are different at each end Again, remember that DLCI numbers are locally significant and do not have to be the same on all segments the VC traverses: the carrier will assign these values for you and send you the correct mappings to use for the DLCIs
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2605The CD contains a multimedia demonstration of configuring manual resolution for a PVC on a router
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One common problem of setting up manual resolution is that it is very common for administrators to configure the wrong DLCI for the VC For example, in the configuration shown for Figure 26-9, some administrators forget that DLCIs are locally significant and configure DLCI 301 on RouterA and DLCI 103 on RouterB When troubleshooting this problem, examine the status of the VC with the show frame-relay pvc or show framerelay map command, looking for a deleted status for the VCThese show commands are discussed in the next section
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Dynamic Resolution
Instead of using manual resolution for your PVCs, you can use dynamic resolution Dynamic resolution uses a feature called Inverse ARP This is something like a reverse ARP in TCP/IP Inverse ARP allows devices to automatically discover the layer 3 protocols and addresses that are used on each VC
Frame Relay Con guration
Inverse ARP occurs every 60 seconds on VCs that are not manually configured and it occurs only on VCs that are in an active state Recall from the LMI section that the state of the VCs is learned from the full status update message For example, once the physical layer for the interface comes up, your router starts sending its LMI enquiries every 10 seconds On the sixth one, it sends a full status message, which requests the statuses of the VCs that the switch directs to this router s interface In this example, it will take at least a minute before the router learns of the status of the VC Once the router sees an active status for a VC, it then does an inverse ARP on the VC if it is not already manually resolved with a frame-relay map command This frame contains the layer 3 protocol and protocol address used by the router When the frame arrives at the remote DTE, the device takes the protocol, layer 3 address, and local DLCI number in the frame header and puts them in its VC resolution table The remote DTEs do the same thing Within a short period of time, your router will know the layer 3 addresses at the end of each of its dynamically learned VCs Once the router knows who is at the other end of the VC, your router can begin transmitting data to the remote DTE
Inverse ARP allows a router to send a Frame Relay frame across a VC with its layer 3 addressing informationThe
destination can then use this, along with the incoming DLCI number, to reach the advertiser
Remember the VC statuses in Table 26-4
VC Status You already know about one of the three states for a VC: active Table 26-4 shows all three basic statuses for a VC For Inverse ARP to take place, the VC must have an active status
TABLE 26-4
Status
Active Inactive
Description
The VC between both Frame Relay DTEs is up and operational The VC between your Frame Relay DTE and DCE is up and operational, but something is wrong with the connection between your connected Frame Relay switch and the destination DTE You are not receiving any LMI messages from the Frame Relay switch for a local VC
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