qr code generator c# tutorial 26: Frame Relay in Objective-C

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26: Frame Relay
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Non-broadcast multi-access (NBMA) is a term used to describe WAN networks that use VCs for connectivity In a broadcast medium in LAN environments such as Ethernet, every device on a segment or VLAN is in the same broadcast domain when a device generates a broadcast, every other device in the broadcast domain will see the segment, as is shown in the top part of Figure 26-10 As you can see in this example, RouterA generates one An NBMA environment broadcast and the other two routers, RouterB is an environment that allows access by and RouterC, receive it With WAN networks multiple devices but doesn t support a that use VCs, each device is connected to traditional broadcast environment such as another device via a point-to-point VC only Ethernet Frame Relay is an example of two devices can be connected to a VC This an NBMA network poses a problem with NBMA environments
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FIGURE 26-10
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Before reading more about the issues of NBMA environments, consider some of the topologies you can use to connect your devices using VCs Table 26-5 contains the terms used to describe these various topologies The bottom part of Figure 26-10 shows an example of a fully meshed network In such a network, it is easy to emulate a broadcast environment In this environment, your router replicates the local broadcast across every VC in the subnet on that interface For example, in Figure 26-10, when RouterA wants to send a local broadcast, it sends it across the two VCs to RouterB and RouterC In a fully meshed environment, every device receives the original broadcast frame This process is also true if RouterB or RouterC generates a broadcast in this example
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The main problem of NBMA environments arises when the network is partially meshed for a subnet This can create problems with routing protocols that support split horizon Recall from 15 that distance vector protocols, such as RIP, use split horizon to prevent routing loops Split horizon states that if routing information is learned on an interface, this routing information will not be propagated out the same interface This is an issue with partially meshed networks that use VCs For instance, two routers may be in the same subnet but not have a VC between them With partially meshed networks, this can create routing issues Look at Figure 26-11 to see the problem This figure shows a network in which RouterA has a VC to the other three routers, but these three routers must go through RouterA to reach the other routers
TABLE 26-5
Topology
Fully meshed Partially meshed Point-to-point Star
Description
Your router has VC connections to every other router Your router has VC connections to some, but not all, of the other routers Your router has a VC connection on only one other router (this is used to emulate leased lines/dedicated circuit connections) Your router has VC connections to some, but not all, of the other routers This is sometimes called a hub-and-spoke topology, where the routers are partially meshed Each remote site router has a connection to the central site router
NBMA Topology Types
26: Frame Relay
FIGURE 26-11
NBMA and split horizon issues
(a hub-and-spoke/star topology) The assumption here is that all of the routers are in the same subnet, and the three VCs terminated at RouterA are going into the same serial interface Let s look at this from a routing perspective, assuming that these routers are running RIPv2 RouterB, RouterC, and RouterD have no issues they have only one VC apiece and can send and receive their routing updates on their VCs However, RouterA has a problem disseminating routing information from RouterB, RouterC, or RouterD to the other routers in the subnet For example, assume that RouterB generates a routing update Since RouterB doesn t have a VC to RouterC and RouterD, it forwards the update to RouterA, in hopes that RouterA will forward this to the other two routers in the subnet However, when RouterA receives the routing update from RouterB, RouterA can t forward this to RouterC and RouterD because of split horizon Even though these two routers are off of different VCs than RouterB, they are off of the same physical interface
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