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INSIDE THE EXAM
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Problems and Limitations of Ethernet
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Remember that all devices connected to a hub are in the same collision domain Hubs solve distance and signal degradation problems broadcast domain unless VLANs are used; each port off of a router is a separate collision and broadcast domain Be able to compare bridges and switches, using Table 4-1 Also be familiar with the three switching methods, store-and-forward, cut-through, and fragment free, as well as the differences between halfand full-duplex, as compared in Table 4-2
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Solutions to Collision Problems
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Know the three kinds of traffic flooded by a switch: unknown unicasts, broadcasts, and multicasts
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Bridges versus Switches
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Bridges and switches are used to solve bandwidth/collision problems Be prepared to examine a diagram of hubs, switches, routers, and PCs and be able to determine the number of collision and broadcast domains: each port off of a switch is a different collision domain, but all the ports are in the same
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Switching Functions
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Be prepared for exam questions that test you on how a switch learns and forwards MAC addresses Study the example in the Switch Example section Remember that a broadcast or multicast address is never learned since it is seen in the destination, not the source, field in the MAC address header
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Certi cation Summary
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STP is used to prevent these problems from occurring STP removes loops in your network but still allows for redundancy Actually, the loop removal process is done in software you don t have to disconnect wires between your switches physically to remove the loops 14 focuses on redundancy in more depth, including the STP protocol
CERTIFICATION SUMMARY
This chapter focused on the advantages that bridges and switches provide in a network Ethernet has problems dealing with collisions Originally, bridges were used to solve this problem; today, switches have supplanted bridges because of their many advantages, including support for a large number of ports, full duplexing, different Ethernet speeds, dedicated connections, simultaneous session transmissions, and very fast switching of frames Switches switch frames in hardware using ASICs and support both full- and half-duplex connections Full-duplex allows you to send and receive simultaneously but requires a point-to-point connection Three switching modes are used: storeand-forward (reads whole frame), cut-through (reads up to the destination MAC address), and fragment-free (reads the first 64 bytes) Bridges and switches have three main functions: learn, forward, and remove loops They learn by placing source MAC addresses and associated bridge ports in a port address or CAM table They will flood traffic if the destination address is a multicast, broadcast, or unknown destination STP is used to remove loops
4: Bridges and Switches
TWO-MINUTE DRILL
Problems and Limitations of Ethernet
Ethernet is limited in distance based on its CSMA/CD implementation Hubs and repeaters can be used to extend the distance of an Ethernet
segment, but since they only repeat physical layer signals, they don t solve collision problems
Solutions to Collision Problems
Bridges and switches help solve bandwidth and collision issues Each port off of a bridge or switch is a separate bandwidth/collision domain
Bridges versus Switches
With store-and-forward switching, the layer 2 device must pull the entire
frame into port and check the FCS before any additional processing of the frame is done With cut-through switching, the switch reads up to and including the destination MAC address in the frame before switching the frame Fragment-free switching makes sure that the frame is at least 64 bytes before switching it
In half-duplex connections, a device can either send or receive at one time
In full-duplex connections, a device can simultaneously send and receive Full-duplex connections don t experience collisions and therefore have the collision detection mechanism disabled in the NIC
Bridges switch frames in software, use store-and-forward switching, use half-
duplex connections, and support a small number of ports Switches switch frames in hardware (ASICs), use multiple switching methods, support both half- and full-duplex connections, and can support hundreds of ports
Switching Functions
The three main functions of layer 2 devices are learning, forwarding, and
removing loops
During the learning process, layer 2 devices add the source MAC address of
the frame and the incoming port number to the port address, or CAM, table
Three types of frames are flooded: broadcast (all devices), multicast (a group
of devices), and unknown (one device) destination
Self Test
SELF TEST
The following Self Test questions will help you measure your understanding of the material presented in this chapter Read all the choices carefully, as there may be more than one correct answer Choose all correct answers for each question
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