TCP/IP Internet Protocols in Objective-C

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TCP/IP Internet Protocols
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address of the destination on the same data link layer medium, such as Ethernet Remember that for two devices to talk to each other in Ethernet (as with most layer 2 technologies), the data link layer uses a physical address (MAC) to differentiate the machines on the segment When Ethernet devices talk to each other at the data link layer, they need to know each other s MAC addresses
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The top part of Figure 6-2 shows an example of the use of ARP In this example PC-A wants to send information directly to PC-B PC-A knows PC-B s IP address (or has DNS resolve it to an IP address); however, it doesn t know PC-B s Ethernet MAC address To resolve the IP to a MAC address, PC-A generates an ARP request In the ARP datagram, the source IP address is 10111 and the destination is 255255255255 (the local broadcast represents every device on the
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FIGURE 6-2
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6: TCP/IP and the Internet Layer
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Ethernet segment) PC-A includes PC-B s IP address in the data field of the ARP datagram This is encapsulated into an Ethernet frame, with a source MAC address of 00000CCC1111 (PC-A s MAC address) and a destination MAC address of FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF (the local broadcast address) and is then placed on the Ethernet segment Both PC-B and PC-C see this frame Both devices NICs notice the data link layer broadcast address and assume that this frame is for them since the destination MAC address is a broadcast, so they strip off the Ethernet frame and pass the IP datagram with the ARP request up to the Internet layer Again, there is a broadcast address in the destination IP address field, so both devices TCP/IP protocol stacks will examine the data payload PC-B notices that this is an ARP and that this is its own IP address in the query, and therefore responds directly back to PC-A with PC-B s MAC address PC-C, however, sees that this is not an ARP for its MAC address and ignores the datagram One important thing that both PC-B and PC-C will do is add PC-A s MAC address to their local ARP tablesThey do this so that if either device needs to communicate with PC-A, neither will have to perform the ARP request as PC-A had to Entries in the ARP table will time out after a period of non-use of the MAC addressThis time period is dependent on the operating system used, but it can typically be changed by the user or administrator Also, a device can generate what is called a gratuitous ARP A gratuitous ARP is an ARP reply that is generated without a corresponding ARP requestThis is commonly used when a device might change its IP address or MAC address and wants to notify all other devices on the segment about the change so that the other devices have the correct information in their local ARP tables
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Figure 6-3 shows a more detailed example of the use of ARP In this example, PC-A wants to connect to PC-B using IP The source address is 1111 (PC-A) and the destination is 2222 (PC-B) Since the two devices are on different networks, a router is used to communicate between the networks Therefore, if PC-A wants to send something to PC-B, it has to be sent via the intermediate router However, this communication does not occur at the network layer using IP; instead, it occurs at the data link layer Assume that Ethernet is being used in this example The first thing that PC-A will do is to determine whether the destination, based on the layer 3 address, is local to this subnet or on another subnet (This process is discussed in 7) In this example, it s a remote location, so PC-A will need to know the MAC address of
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