TCP/IP Internet Protocols in Objective-C

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FIGURE 6-3
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ARP example with a router
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the default gateway router If the address isn t already in its local ARP table, PC-A will ARP for the default gateway s MAC address (Note that one thing you must configure on PC-A, other than its own IP address and subnet mask, is the default gateway address, or you must acquire this information via DHCP) This is shown in step 1 of Figure 6-3 In step 2, the router responds with the MAC address of its Ethernet interface connected to PC-A In step 3, PC-A creates an IP packet with the source and destination IP addresses (the source is 1111 and the destination is 2222, PC-B) and encapsulates this in an Ethernet frame, with the source MAC address of PC-A and the destination MAC address of the router PC-A then sends the Ethernet frame to the router When the router receives the Ethernet frame, the router compares the frame to the MAC address on its Ethernet interface, which it matches The router strips off the Ethernet frame and makes a routing decision based on the destination address of 2222 In this case, the network is directly connected to the router s second interface, which also happens to be Ethernet In step 4, if the router doesn t have PC-B s MAC address in its local ARP table, the router ARPs for the MAC address of PC-B (2222)
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6: TCP/IP and the Internet Layer
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and receives the response in step 5 The router then encapsulates the original IP packet in a new Ethernet frame in step 6, placing its second interface s MAC address, which is sourcing the frame, in the source MAC address field and PC-B s MAC address in the destination field When PC-B receives this, it knows the frame is for itself (matching destination MAC address) and that PC-A originated the IP packet that s encapsulated based on the source IP address in the IP header at layer 3 Note that in this example, the original IP addressing in the packet was not altered by the router, but two Ethernet frames are used to get the IP packet to the destination Also, each device will keep the MAC addresses in a local ARP table, so the next time PC-A needs to send something to PC-B, the devices will not have to ARP other intermediate devices again
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Be familiar with what device talks to what other device at both layer 2 and layer 3 With a router between the source and destination, the source at layer 2 uses its own MAC address as
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the source but the default gateway MAC address as the destination Note that the IP addresses used at layer 3 are not changed by the router
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The assumption with ARP is that the device being ARPed is on the same segment For example, in Figure 6-4, PC-A assumes 1112 (the router s IP address) is in the same broadcast domain based on the IP address of the router, which is true If PC-A generated a broadcast ARP for the router s MAC address, the router would see the request However, you might encounter a situation in which you ve moved a device from one part of the network to another, but you must keep the device s original IP address when moving it
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Proxy ARP allows the router you need to move a device from one to respond with its own MAC address in segment to another but cannot change its an ARP reply for a device on a different current IP addressing information network segment Proxy ARP is used when If you examine Figure 6-4, you can see that PC-C was moved from the lefthand segment to the right-hand segment, but its IP address was kept the same
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