qr code generator c# tutorial 6: TCP/IP and the Internet Layer in Objective-C

Draw Quick Response Code in Objective-C 6: TCP/IP and the Internet Layer

6: TCP/IP and the Internet Layer
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TABLE 6-5
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-t -a -n count -l size -f -w seconds
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Sends a continuous string of echo request messages to the destination: use CTRL-C to abort the process Performs a reverse name lookup, resolving the entered IP address to a fully qualified domain name Sends the specified number of echo request messages; if you omit this parameter, the default is 4 echo requests Specifies the size, in bytes, of the echo request message; if you omit this parameter, the default is 32 bytes Sets the don t fragment flag in the IP header Specifies the number of seconds to wait for an echo reply message before giving up on the reply; if you omit this parameter, the default is 2 seconds
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Windows ping Command Options
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The Windows ping command is executed from the CLI command prompt Table 6-5 lists the more common options you can specify with the command
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When troubleshooting PC problems, rst determine whether the user can ping the loopback address: ping 127001 If this fails, then something is wrong with the TCP/IP stack installation on the PC Next, have the user try to ping the locally con gured IP address
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If this fails, something is wrong with the IP address con guration on the PC Next, have the user ping the default gateway If this fails, then something is wrong with the con gured default gateway address, the default gateway itself, or the subnet mask value con gured on the user s PC
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Here is an example of using the ping command:
C:\ > ping 4222 Pinging 4222 with 32 bytes of data: Request timed out Reply from 4222: bytes=32 time=20ms TTL=53 Reply from 4222: bytes=32 time=22ms TTL=53 Reply from 4222: bytes=32 time=20ms TTL=53
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Ping statistics for 4222: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 3, Lost = 1 (25% loss), Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 20ms, Maximum = 25ms, Average = 21ms
Notice that the first echo request message timed out, but the following three were successful this is probably because this PC, as well as intermediate routers, had to perform ARPs to find the next hop layer 3 device s MAC address, causing the time to exceed 2 seconds In the successful echo replies, you can see the time it took for the round-trip between the source and destination; for example, the last echo request and reply took 20 milliseconds to complete
If the rst echo request times out, but the rest of the echo requests are successful, the rst request probably timed out because the source and possibly intermediate devices were performing ARPs If you see intermixed echo replies and destination unreachable messages,
you know that either a lot of traf c lies between you and the destination, causing a large delay in the returning echo replies, or a physical layer problem exists somewhere between the source and destination causing corruption of sent data
The tracert Command
One limitation of ping is that this command will not tell you, between you and the destination device, where layer 3 connectivity is broken The Windows tracert command (short for traceroute), on the other hand, will list each router along the way, including the final destination Therefore, if a layer 3 connection problem exists, with traceroute, you ll know at least where the problem begins Table 6-6 lists the more common options you can specify with the tracert command
TABLE 6-6
Option
-d -h maximum_hops -w timeout
Explanation
Specifies that a reverse DNS lookup should not be performed for each hop to, and including, the destination Specifies the maximum number of hops that the trace can traverse to the destination Specifies the number of seconds to wait for an echo reply message before giving up on the reply; if you omit this parameter, the default is 2 seconds
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