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Fiber-optic cable represents one of the best-known transmission mediums, offering unmatched bandwidth-distance scalability In addition, this technology has excellent electromagnetic/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) immunity, very good protection against intrusion, and minimal long-term maintenance costs As a result, fiber has become the solution of choice for large-scale, metro-regional, and backbone core infrastructures, where the prime focus is on achieving low-cost per bit More recently, new build-outs are pushing this medium closer into the last-mile Concurrently, Ethernet has evolved over the last quarter century, becoming the preferred networking technology in the enterprise/campus local area network (LAN) space Ethernet has proven low-costs, simplicity of installation and use, and minimal maintenance overheads Today, this technology is widely used to interconnect a myriad of enduser devices computers, servers, storage devices, and printers and shipped ports now number in the hundreds of millions In all, this gives Ethernet unmatched ubiquity and economies of scale With growing end-user bandwidth demands, however, there is a strong desire to migrate Ethernet s reach across larger metropolitan and wide area network (MAN/WAN) domains Traditionally, such Ethernet extension has been done by mapping over legacy voice-centric Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) infrastructures, for example, Synchronous Optical NETworking (SONET)/ Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) networks Nevertheless, the operational and scalability limitations here are well-documented, and this has led to a renewed focus on improving fiber-Ethernet integration Over the past decade, there have been many crucial developments in fiber-based Ethernet transmission Most notably, two key trends have been advances in optical networking, namely Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) and the standardization of new optical Ethernet interfaces These technologies now permit highly streamlined native-mode transmission of Ethernet frames across extensive carrier infrastructures Specifically, two major approaches have evolved, namely direct
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Ethernet over fiber (EoF) and Ethernet over WDM (EoWDM) In light of this broadbased evolution, the very notion of Ethernet has been transformed from that of an interface/switching technology into a genuine carrier service offering spanning the full LAN-MAN-WAN geographic range This chapter looks at the delivery of Carrier Ethernet services over fiber-optic networks Initially, the main technologies and standards in the area are reviewed Subsequently the motivations behind the development of Carrier Ethernet are presented, and the EoF and EoWDM concepts introduced In addition, the best-fit scenarios for these solutions are identified along with their benefits and shortcomings Finally, ongoing and future developments are discussed along with economic assessments and a brief vendor survey Note that there have been many recent developments in Ethernet over SONET (EoS), which also uses underlying fiber-based transmission However, these avenues are more appropriately discussed in 11, and the focus herein is strictly upon native Ethernet transport over fiber cables
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EoF and EoWDM embody native Ethernet transmission over fiber and/or fiber-optic networks These streamlined approaches can greatly reduce network complexity and lower overall service cost In order to introduce these concepts, however, this section first reviews the latest advances in some crucial technology areas WDM networks, fiber-optic Ethernet interfaces, and network control and management frameworks The implementation of carrier services via EoF and EoWDM is then treated in the subsequent sections
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Commercial fiber optic transmission traces its origins to the 1970s when older multimode fiber (MMF) systems, as shown in Figure 81, were used to deliver interconnectivity between voice-switching exchanges Here, associated bit-rates were tied to older plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) standards such as E1 (2048 Mbps) Subsequently, the late 1980s and early 1990s saw concertive carrier efforts to standardize SONET/SDH technology, with interface speeds scaling from the low tens of megabits (STS-1, E3) to multigigabits (OC-192/STM-64) These advances were enabled by two key factors high-speed electronic hardware and improved single-mode fiber (SMF) media, as shown in Figure 82 The telecom-bubble era of the late 1990s to early 2000s saw an even more profound evolution with the commercialization of WDM technology This approach delivered unmatched terabits-per-fiber scalability by transmitting multiple channels (called wavelengths) of light in unused SMF spectral bands Indeed, dense WDM (DWDM) now forms the foundation of modern optical networks, and key advances have come in crucial enabling component technologies, for example, passive elements (fibers, couplers, filters) and active elements (lasers, amplifiers, switches) [1] Although the DWDM market has experienced severe realignment in the post-bubble era, it has since returned to normalcy and is now experiencing steady growth [2] The key component advances are summarized in Table 81
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