Optical Network Architectures in Objective-C

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Component advances have led to major evolutions in optical network element (ONE) designs over the past decade In turn, these have enabled much-improved service provisioning paradigms at the network layer, as shown in Figure 83 As a result, DWDM is now a multibillion dollar market that has seen tremendous growth in the metro/ regional and long-haul networking sectors In fact, this technology has largely usurped legacy SONET/SDH as the main underlying transport solution Current ONE systems offer a wide range of capabilities and are becoming increasingly flexible and agile (see Table 82) Moreover, intense market competition continues to drive price reductions, about 20 percent per year [2], offering genuine prospects for capital (CAPEX) and operational (OPEX) expense reduction These new paradigms are detailed in the following sections The first commercial DWDM deployments took place in the mid-1990s and were primarily aimed at point-to-point fiber-relief on congested long-haul spans, ie, first-generation DWDM (see Figure 83) [3] These build-outs used optical terminal multiplexer (OTM) systems to improve cost-per-bit-per-mile by exploiting the multichannel transmission/amplification economics of DWDM Although these systems were very costly at the time, they saw strong uptake due to the large amortization base of the long-haul sector Over the years, more cost-optimized OTM renditions were also evolved for the metro/regional sectors in order to relieve congestion on heavily
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Point-to-Point DWDM Transport
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First-Generation DWDM Second-Generation DWDM DCS Fixed OADM Third-Generation DWDM Dynamic optical DWDM ring-mesh topologies ROADM OXC
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Point-to-point capacity expansion DWDM SONET OC-48/192 ADM
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UPSR ring (16-32 ) Static optical DWDM linear/ring topologies Static Optical Add-Drop Mux Demux Manual patching Post-amp Mux Optical fabric SPRING (32-128 )
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SONET OC-3/12 Optical Terminal Multiplexer Laser transponders Modular filter
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Pre-amp
Post-amp
Post-amp Client interfaces Developed mid-1990s Point-to-point fiber relief Staged filters, amplifiers Short-reach client interfaces Up to 160 wavelengths/fiber
Laser transponders Mid-1990s-early 2000s Static ring, multiring Fixed routing/channel assignment Manual provisioning, VOA tuning 1+1 UPSR channel protection
Tunable filters Tunable laser transponders Ring, multiring, mesh topologies Dynamic switching, add/drop Power balancing / AGC Intelligent control plane (GMPLS) Dedicated/shared protection, restoration
Figure 83 Optical network evolutions and optical network elements (ONE) designs
Fiber and WDM
TABLE 82 ONE Type
Summary of DWDM Optical Network Element (ONE) Designs Cost Low Medium Medium High High Topologies Point-to-point, linear Linear, ring Linear, ring Mesh, interconnected rings Mesh, interconnected rings Survivability 1+1, 1:1, 1:N 1+1 UPSR, 1+1 span 1+1 UPSR, OCh/ OMS-SPRING Applications Fiber-relief on congested spans Metro and access add-drop Metro-core/regional IOF add-drop
Optical terminal multiplexer (OTM) Static optical add-drop multiplexer (SOADM) Reconfigurable optical adddrop multiplexer (ROADM) All-optical cross-connect switch (OXC) Optical+digital cross-connect switch (OXC+DCS/MSTP)
Mesh protection, Long-haul backbone restoration Mesh, ring protection Traffic add/drop, 3R regeneration
loaded interoffice fiber (IOF) spans Current commercial OTM offerings can now scale to well over 100 wavelengths per fiber with 10 Gbps wavelength speeds, yielding unmatched terabit capacity The generic OTM design is shown in Figure 83 and consists of client interfaces, wavelength transponders, amplifiers, and multiplexing/demultiplexing filters The transponders perform optical modulation for client signals, and new compact pluggable interfaces are widely available for most protocol interfaces, eg, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, 10 Gigabit Ethernet, Fibre Channel, SONET/SDH OC-n/STM-n, and so on These interfaces can be bypassed if the client gear directly supports ITU-T-compliant DWDM optics on their interface cards; for instance, many SONET/SDH and Ethernet/ IP platforms are equipped with 1550 nm lasers for direct interconnection purposes Moreover commercial DWDM systems particularly metro/regional also offer staged filter designs to reduce up-front costs and facilitate pay-as-you-grow expansion, as shown in the parallel and serial designs depicted in Figure 84 In general, the latter can give low first cost but are more expensive to scale and tend to yield higher losses (2 3 dB per stage), see [3] Many OTM systems also feature a wide range of laser and amplifier combinations to handle different span lengths and device losses For example, DFB lasers are sufficient for SMF spans less than 60 km and bit rates up to OC-48/STM-16 (25 Gbps) However, for increased 10 Gbps speeds, more powerful externally modulated lasers and EDFA devices are necessary In fact, larger spans may even mandate dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) coil placements An alternate means for boosting reach for higher data rates is via forward error correction (FEC), though this adds cost and compromises service transparency (see the ITU-T digital wrappers approach detailed in Optical Network Management) Given the massive terabit capacity of a single fiber strand, most OTM systems implement some type of fiber/span protection The most common scheme is dedicated 1+1 protection, which uses passive splitters to bridge/switch all client traffic onto separate working and protection fibers, as shown in Figure 85 This simple setup is purely hardware-based and precludes any end-to-end span signaling as it splits and sends
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