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the WAN PHY Specifically, only minimal path/section/line overhead processing is done (enough to isolate faults), and stratum clock timing is eliminated along with stringent laser source requirements As a result, 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports are significantly cheaper than comparable packet-over-SONET (PoS) interfaces (RFC 1619) [6] In addition, the WAN PHY also supports additional 64b/66b encoding to handle faster 10 Gbps rates Note that the actual distance reach of the 10 Gbps DWDM interfaces (eg, 10G Base-ER/EW) are not of direct consequence since carrier DWDM networks usually provide amplification and/or regeneration to traverse hundreds or thousands of kilometers There has also been an ongoing miniaturization of optical transceiver modules and the move toward end-user pluggables Notable examples of such form factors include gigabit interface converters (GBIC), small factor pluggables (SFP), XENPAK, X2, and XFP Specifically, the GBIC design was originally adopted from Fibre Channel and subsequent improvements (halving of size) led to the SFP transceiver In terms of optical Ethernet interfaces, the GBIC and SFP modules support Gigabit Ethernet, whereas the others support 10 Gigabit Ethernet In particular, hot-pluggable XENPAK modules are available for all 10 Gbps media types (MMF and SMF) Collectively, these interfaces allows carriers to couple ports seamlessly on DWDM systems (OTM, OADM, and OXC) with any type of client signal (Ethernet, SONET/SDH, Fibre Channel, and so on) In addition, these compact designs help reduce footprint density and associated co-location costs 10 Gigabit Ethernet is also being adapted for very short-reach data center and even intrasystem backplane applications For example, the 10G Base-LX4 standard uses a four-wavelength parallel interface over a single fiber pair Meanwhile others variants are even extending interconnectivity over non-fiber media types, such as twinaxial cables (10G Base-CX4) and unshielded twisted pair (UTP) copper (10G Base-T with 100 m reach)
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Multi-wavelength optical network architecture and control standards have evolved significantly over the last decade, paving the way for improved vendor interoperability and intelligent on-demand provisioning [7] From the ITU-T side, a comprehensive optical transport network (OTN) architecture has been defined based on a three-layer transport hierarchy comprising optical channel (OCh), optical multiplex (OMS), and optical transport (OTS) sections Associated frame structures and bit-rate hierarchies for mapping a host of client protocols (native formats) are also defined Within this framework, G8070 (formerly Gastn) defines the requirements for an Automatic Switched Transport Network (ASTN) via a set of functions for connection setup/takedown Meanwhile, the reference architecture for supporting ASTN control is given in G8080 (formerly Gason), which details a distributed client-server setup along with its associated components and interactions In particular, G8080 identifies hierarchical distributed routing and signaling setups However the ASON framework does not define specific control protocols for optical networks Here, the major contribution has come from the IETF s generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) framework [7]
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GMPLS extends packet-based multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) by abstracting labels to cover a range of Layer 1 entities TDM timeslots, wavelengths, bands, and fibers This solution defines key protocols for resource discovery, signaling, traffic engineering, and link management For example, resource discovery is done via extensions to existing interior gateway protocols (IGP) such as open-shortest path first-traffic engineering (OSPF-TE) and intermediate-system to intermediate-system (IS-IS) Namely, routing updates provide state on wavelength/timeslot usages, protection/diversity, and so on Meanwhile GMPLS signaling extends the resource reservation-traffic engineering (RSVP-TE) protocol for setup/takedown of lightpath (or SONET/SDH) circuits In turn RSVP-TE is driven by constraint-based routing (CBR), which performs advanced resource engineering Recently, there have also been many liaison efforts between the ITU-T and IETF to streamline GMPLS protocols to be ASON-compliant Overall, GMPLS increases horizontal control plane integration (data-optical) and eliminates feature overlaps in traditional multilayered setups, for example, addressing, signaling, routing, and so on The Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF) has also defined an optical user network interface (UNI) [8] protocol that allows clients to request/release capacity without knowledge of network internals, ie, an optical dial-tone In addition, the OIF external-network node interface (NNI) helps to automate connection establishment between domains [9] Collectively, these standards facilitate a wide range of on-demand end-to-end networklevel provisioning features, as demonstrated for EoS settings in Jones et al [10]
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