Ethernet Management in Objective-C

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Ethernet Management
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As of today, however, only the Ethernet services layer OAM standard has been ratified, although the others are close to being approved Broader vendor support and carrier adoption will also take time
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In light of the technologies and standards just described, the evolution of fiber-based Ethernet transmission is now taking shape Today, the primary drivers for Ethernet services over fiber/WDM are the rapid growth in corporate data-center needs and much-improved end-user access technologies [2] These developments have yielded substantial increases in data traffic volumes and forced carriers to look for improved services scalability and lower costs both capital and operational Consider some details briefly The residential sector has seen the adoption of many last-mile broadband access solutions with multimegabit speeds For example, most cable operators have aggressively deployed high-speed data-over-cable solutions and migrated their infrastructures to highly scalable hybrid fiber-coax (HFC) setups Meanwhile, competing incumbents have rolled out various DSL schemes to deliver improved data (and some video) services Furthermore, many incumbents are even starting to deploy fiber-based Passive Optical Networks (PON), raising the bar to genuine gigabit-level scalability Concurrently, various high-speed wireless technologies are maturing rapidly, including WiMAX (IEEE 80216) All of these build-outs have shown a strong unifying trend toward low-cost packet-based delivery and bundled triple-play services, for example, voice, video, and data These changes have propelled IP/Ethernet data volumes well beyond legacy voice levels, generating large back-haul requirements Meanwhile, the corporate space has also seen its share of transitions In the last decade, more and more business activities have moved online, including sales, support, accounting, and training As businesses have expanded their operations, the need for reliable data sharing and access across dispersed MAN/WAN regions has surged In turn, these developments have driven up corporate bandwidth requirements and stringencies as embodied by applications such as LAN extension, storage area networks (SAN), and virtual private networks (VPN) (see also Sections 851 and 852 ) A noteworthy trend here is the reversal of the 80/20 traffic rule, where nearly 80 percent of traffic now heads into the network core In the past, corporations have used separate technologies for their internal communication needs For example, voice calls were supported by TDM branch exchanges whereas data services (e-mail, ftp, and Web) were heavily Ethernet-based However businesses are now moving toward converged setups that leverage Ethernet s cost-effectiveness, port scalability, and ease-of-use/ maintenance Some telling examples include the migration of TDM voice to Voice over IP (VoIP) and new packet video services In light of this shift, there is a pressing need to extend Ethernet as a service beyond the enterprise in a manner that preserves its ubiquity and cost efficiency Ethernet extension has usually been done using traditional TDM-based leased line or direct dark fiber provisioning In particular, leased line services run at slower T1 or OC-3 speeds and require costly intermediate protocol gears such as Frame Relay
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Fiber and WDM
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or asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) It is well known that these multilayered setups suffer from huge bandwidth inefficiency and are very costly from an operational perspective [6] More importantly, they have failed to keep pace with today s gigabitlevel Ethernet port speeds Alternatively, enterprise Ethernet systems simply do not offer the high-end capabilities needed for true MAN/WAN operation, for example, high availability, QoS, management, and so on In fact, a recent survey of IT managers indicated that high bandwidth, low latency, low loss, and security are some of their major requirements [12] Along these lines, the Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) has defined five attributes for a Carrier Ethernet service, namely QoS, scalability, reliability/protection, TDM support, and services management [13] Indeed, fiber-optic and WDM technologies are very well-aligned to support these needs In fact, the ongoing growth in Carrier Ethernet services is perhaps one of the main factors behind the post-bubble resurgence of the optical networking market In all, this is leading to a very strong convergence between the data and optical networking layers Consider the individual MEF attributes for Carrier Ethernet:
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Quality of service (QoS) The MEF defines various QoS attributes as part of a client s end-to-end SLA profile These include the connection s committed information rate (CIR), excess information rate (EIR), committed burst size (CBS), and excess burst size (EBS) In general, these parameters are more germane for packet-switching implementations that tend to deliver relative soft QoS between competing services, such as MPLS, Ethernet switching, and resilient packet ring (RPR) Hence, the inherent circuit-based nature of WDM ensures its ability to provide hard QoS with full-rate guarantees, minimal delay, and near zero jitter and loss Scalability This MEF requirement stresses the need to support large numbers (100,000 range) of Ethernet virtual connections (EVC) and high aggregate system/ link scalability (tens of gigabits) Again, the former requirement is more tailored for higher packet-switching layers as it pertains to individual end-user counts However, DWDM is very well-positioned with regards to the latter requirement since current OTM and OADM systems can readily scale to support hundreds of channels at gigabit-level speeds Reliability/protection The MEF standards also call for rapid service protection at the end-to-end path level, with speeds matching 50 ms SONET/SDH timescales Additionally, the need for line and node level protection is also stated Today, many commercial WDM platforms are already fully network-equipment building systems (NEBS) compliant and offer five nines (99999 percent) availability under five minutes annual downtime Moreover, a full range of WDM survivability options are available, most of which can match SONET/SDH timescales (see Optical Network Architectures ) In fact, some dedicated schemes such at 1+1 span or UPSR path protection can even achieve lower millisecond recovery (less than 10 ms) TDM support This requirement mandates legacy TDM voice support via circuit emulation ( pseudo-wire ) Again, this issue relates more to packet-switching technologies that use mechanisms such as scheduling, buffer management, and call
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