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admission control Although these requirements are not directly applicable to DWDM, it is important to note that this technology can transparently host legacy TDM equipment (services) alongside Carrier Ethernet Also, existing TDM management solutions can also be used, greatly facilitating interim service migrations for carriers with existing SONET/SDH architectures
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Services management DWDM and Ethernet OAM standards have been steadily evolving to meet carrier-class OAM needs, as detailed in Network & Services Management Robust provisioning control at the DWDM layer is also becoming available via GMPLS (see Optical Network Control ) As vendors start to integrate these offerings into their EMS/NMS systems, carriers will benefit from a full range of end-to-end service differentiation and SLA management capabilities
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This section introduces the EoF and EoWDM concepts for provisioning Carrier Ethernet services Foremost, it is evident that service definitions will play a critical role in formalizing the overall client-carrier experience Along these lines, the MEF has defined its own UNI setup [14] and standardized various Carrier Ethernet service categories for MAN/ WAN operation These include point-to-point Ethernet Private Line (EPL) and Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL) services and multipoint-to-multipoint Ethernet Private LAN (EPLAN) and Ethernet Virtual Private LAN (EVPLAN) services [13] This section introduces the EoF and EoWDM approaches for provisioning these new services
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It is assumed that readers have basic familiarity with these service models
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Ethernet Private Line (EPL) Services
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EPL provides point-to-point connectivity using client data interfaces and has similar characteristics to legacy private lines Namely, each connection has a standard set of attributes including traffic parameters such as CIR, EIR, CBS, and EBS Furthermore, other attributes are also defined, including performance parameters (SLA packet delay, packet jitter, and packet loss), service priority, and security [13] The EVPL service extends this definition via port-multiplexing; in other words, multiple virtual EPL connections can share an EPL connection A simple means of provisioning EPL services is to interconnect client-side optical Ethernet ports using (leased/purchased) dark fiber routes or Ethernet over fiber (EoF), as shown in Figure 86 This native solution is limited to the reach of associated SMF 1310 nm Ethernet interfaces (see Optical Ethernet Interfaces), proprietary versions of which can extend to 100 km At the data-plane level, this setup obviously provides hard QoS at full-rate Ethernet tributary speeds, for example, CIR = 100 Mbps, 10 Gpbs, 10 Gbps Nevertheless, obtaining dark fiber routes between all endpoints is generally very costly and gives reduced service velocity from a range of days to weeks Additionally EoF relegates all control and management to higher-layers, as shown in Figure 87
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Ethernet over Fiber (EoF)
Corporate LAN Leased / owned point-to-point spans, 40 km reach (standard), over 100 km (proprietary) Data-mining warehouse
1000 Base-LX Gigabit Ethernet switch
1000 Base-LX Gigabit Ethernet switch
Client OAM (SNMP, Ethernet OAM)
Ethernet over WDM (EoWDM)
Corporate data center / server farm Carrier-class EMS/NMS support (TL1, CORBA) 1000 Base-LX 1000 Base-LR Metro-regional DWDM ring (50-500 km, 32-128 ) ROADM FCIP, iSCSI Fiber Channel Storage cluster (SAN over IP)
VoD servers 10G Base-ER
DWDM backbone
EDFA DWDM lightpaths (UPSR, SPRING protection) OXC mesh
Gigabit Ethernet switches
Ethernet private line services over fiber (EoF) and WDM (EoWDM)
Ethernet over Fiber (EoF) Management
Client NMS/OSS
Local side
EDD/ UNI EDD
E-2-E Ethernet service OAM Access link OAM (8023ah) EDD EDD/ UNI Remote side
Fiber span Edge switch Edge switch
Ethernet over WDM (EoWDM) Management
OSS Local side E-2-E Ethernet services OAM (Y17EthOAM) EDD/ UNI CPE Access link OAM (8023ah) Transport NMS (OTN framework) CORBA, TL1 Provider edge node EDD/ UNI CPE Remote side
Provider edge node
DWDM network
EoF and EoWDM service management scenarios
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This is clearly problematic if client gears lack carrier-grade support For example, service protection may have to use slower Ethernet rapid spanning tree protocol (RSTP) or MPLS rerouting protocols Although Ethernet interface ports could possibly incorporate 1+1 fiber protection, few vendors support this option Similarly, carrier-grade OAM support may be limited as associated Ethernet OAM standards will take time to mature In general, EoF will give much lower fiber resource utilization and higher overbuild, since few leasing clients will deploy CWDM/DWDM systems to exploit unused wavelength capacities This solution is, therefore, only feasible in smaller, fiber-rich scenarios with relaxed fault-tolerance and OAM needs A much more scalable and efficient EPL approach is to map native optical Ethernet interfaces onto WDM lightpaths Ethernet over WDM (EoWDM) as shown in Figure 86 The economics of this collapsed transparent solution are very compelling, especially for carriers with existing DWDM infrastructures For example, an Ethernet packet can leave a server via a Gigabit Ethernet DWDM interface, move across a metro ROADM ring, and be received on a workstation all without costly intermediate SONET/SDH or ATM/Frame Relay electronics From the data-plane perspective, EoWDM (like EoF) can also provide highly stringent circuit-like QoS guarantees Nevertheless, its geographic coverage is much greater than EoF, as amplified DWDM networks can readily span over 1000 km Moreover, EoWDM is vastly more bandwidth scalable than EoF by almost two orders of magnitude and new third-generation DWDM ROADM nodes can provide much faster service velocity (minutes and hours) EoWDM can also leverage the full range of WDM survivability schemes (see Figure 85) to offer multiple tiered (ie, differentiated and value-added) EPL packages Some examples are shown in Table 85 and include high-end EPL services using dedicated protection (1+1 span, UPSR, and mesh protection) to more wavelength-efficient services using shared protection (SPRING, shared mesh protection, and mesh restoration) Also note that EoWDM
TABLE 85 Sample DWDM-enabled EPL Service Categories EPL Type Carrier Pricing Data Rates Platinum Very high Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet/10 Gigabit Ethernet Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet/10 Gigabit Ethernet Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet/10 Gigabit Ethernet Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet/10 Gigabit Ethernet Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet/10 Gigabit Ethernet Recovery Timescales < 10 ms Comments 1+1 span, dedicated UPSR
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