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Benefits and Shortcomings
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Carriers can use a variety of technologies to deliver carrier-grade Ethernet services, including high-end Ethernet switching, EoS, Ethernet over MPLS (EoMPLS), Ethernet over RPR (EoRPR), and of course EoF/EoWDM The related data and control plane protocol stacks are shown in Figure 88 and further details can be found in other chapters
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GFP, VCAT SONET/ SDH
MPLS SONET/ SDH
RPR SONET/ SDH
Ethernet
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EoF, EoWDM
Ethernet
Single Mode Fiber (SMF)
Control Plane Protocol Mappings
Legacy EoS Ethernet Ethernet ATM, Frame Relay SONET/ SDH Ethernet LCAS SONET/ SDH MPLS SONET/ SDH RPR GMPLS Ethernet RPR Ethernet Ethernet EoF EoMPLS Ethernet EoRPR EoWDM EoRPR
Figure 88 Carrier Ethernet data and control plane mappings
Fiber and WDM
of this book Clearly, the choice of a particular solution will depend upon various contingencies such as cost, existing infrastructures, projected demands, and competition Moreover, these choices need not be mutually exclusive; in many cases, operators can selectively internetwork solutions to achieve maximum coverage This section details some of the actual benefits and shortcomings of EoF and EoWDM vis a vis the competing alternatives (see Table 86)
Benefits
Fiber-optic transmission offers many inherent benefits for carrier-grade Ethernet services Foremost, the unrivalled bandwidth capacity of DWDM transmission/switching systems makes EoWDM by far the most scalable approach for high-density/high-speed data port aggregation, for example, n 10 Gigabit Ethernet By contrast, SONET/SDH or MPLS switching platforms are simply not cost-competitive at multiterabit switching rates Moreover, EoWDM can enforce hard-QoS guarantees at all network loadings, and this capability is only matched by EoS also a circuit-switching technology albeit at much lower absolute loadings Conversely, packet-switching solutions (such as EoMPLS, EoRPR, Ethernet switching) use more complex scheduler and priority mechanisms to enforce relative separation between coarse classes of service (CoS) At the carrier level, this requires a level of over-engineering as latency performance is very load-dependent [12], further increasing CAPEX and lowering amortization/payback periods Also note that next-generation SONET (NGS)/multiservice provisioning platform (MSPP) technologies have become very popular with incumbents and can deliver very high efficiency and carrier-class OAM (see 11) Nevertheless,
TABLE 86 Feature Topologies Service types Comparison of Different Solutions for Carrier Ethernet Services Ethernet Switching Mesh EthernetSONET Linear, ring, mesh Ethernet MPLS Mesh EPL/EVPL, ELAN/ EVPLAN Ethernet RPR Dual ring EPL/EVPL, ELAN/ EVPLAN EthernetFiber Point-topoint EPL Ethernet WDM Linear, ring, mesh EPL
EPL/EVPL, EPL/EVPL ELAN/EVPLAN Medium (Gbps) Very fine (kbps-Mbps) Soft/relative 100s ms to seconds Ethernet OAM (maturing)
Scalability Granularity QoS Support Protection OAM support
Medium (Gbps) Medium(Gbps) Medium (Gbps) Fine (VT15) Hard < 50 ms SONET/SDH OAM (excellent) Very fine (kbps-Mbps) Soft/relative 100s ms Ethernet OAM with MPLS LSP ping/ trace route (maturing)
Medium (Gbps)
High (Tbps) Coarse (Gbps) Hard
Very fine Coarse (kbps-Mbps) (Gbps) Soft/relative Hard < 50 ms Ethernet OAM with RPR ping (maturing)
Per higher < 10 ms to layers 100s ms Ethernet DWDM OAM OAM (maturing) (excellent)
8
these technologies still face many challenges in transitioning to the next TDM carrier rate, 40 Gbps OC-768/STM-256 As such, NGS/MSPP is most germane as a grooming solution and fundamentally cannot scale capacity this is only possible via multichannel DWDM The native format transparency of EoWDM (and EoF) provides vital cost savings for carriers particularly at 10 Gbps rates Namely, ROADM and EDFA-based networks can transparently move packets across large MAN domains without any intermediate electronic packet/bit-level processing and regeneration This allows EoF/EoWDM to concurrently support all Ethernet line rates and keep pace with any future rate increases, future-proofing it Specifically, EPL rate changes will only require edge interface (transponder) upgrades and possibly selected changes to amplifier and dispersion module placements This contrasts with EoS or EoMPLS, which require comprehensive node upgrades throughout the network to run increased interface speeds Optical transparency also enables full-rate EoWDM services to co-exist with other network implementations over the same fiber-plant (EoS, EoMPLS, and even legacy TDM private line) This is of crucial importance to incumbents since it allows them to complement subrate EoS systems and achieve staged, timely migrations Finally, the physical-layer separation of WDM channels ensures high-security/confidentiality between clients As mentioned earlier, EoWDM replicates five nines resiliency and sub-50ms recovery Although EoS and EoRPR can also achieve these bounds, their switchover capacities are much more limited For example, DWDM-layer protection can restore well over a hundred 10 Gbps EPL connections in one span switch However, EoWDM recovery is very coarse, and hence, carriers may have to perform some form of higher-layer grooming to achieve service selectivity Namely, traffic flows with similar QoS profiles or price points will have to be combined over the same lightpath Also note that the decoupled nature of data and control planes in transparent DWDM networks (see Optical Network Control) can improve overall EoWDM service resiliency, giving them a measure of immunity to control plane faults Finally, optical networking technology offers various other cost savings for EPL services From an operational perspective, DWDM systems have smaller footprints and lower power consumption than equivalent-rate SONET/SDH systems This provides very sizeable OPEX reduction at dense co-location sites Moreover, EoWDM is very attractive for carriers with existing fiber infrastructures For example, incumbents can migrate their entrenched fiber rings by slowly replacing legacy SONET/SDH nodes with modularized ROADM nodes These upgrades can be done in a timely, cost-sensitive manner, where DWDM ports (eg, filters, ROADM) are initially put in place and later populated with pluggable Ethernet transceiver modules as demands increase This accelerates service delivery and minimizes equipment costs as transponders/transceivers form the bulk of optical network expenditures
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