Optical Wireless Mesh Networks in Objective-C

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Optical Wireless Mesh Networks
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Communication Channel (Transmitter and Receiver) For the transmission and reception of data, FSO uses the same underlying technology as fiber-optic technology Not only is this underlying technology a mature technology, but also it has the benefit of offering a significant potential to scale when it comes to delivering fiber-like bandwidth with the flexibility of being a wireless medium Most FSO systems use the infrared (IR) spectrum with wavelengths between 785 nm and 850 nm Infrared signals are not visible to human eyes but are visible to silicon detectors Some FSO systems also use 1550 nm wavelength IR beams, a spectrum popular in long-haul fiber-optic communication The 1550 nm IR beam has the benefits of being slightly less susceptible to atmospheric effects and safer for the human eye than 850 nm IR beam However, the current state of transmitter and receiver technology makes it less cost-effective Unlike RF wireless, FSO does not use sophisticated modulation techniques FSO systems, in general, use the same modulation techniques as fiber-optic systems do, referred to as On-Off Keying (OOK) modulation, where the optical signal is turned ON or OFF to transmit the 1 or 0 state of a bit in a digital datastream One of the key differentiations between the transmission technique of FSO and fiber optics is the optical power transmitted In fiber-optic systems, signals do not experience significant loss as they travel from the transmitter to the receiver, as they do in the case of FSO due to geometric spreading and atmospheric attenuation of the signals In the case of fiber optics, only a very small fraction of the transmitted light gets lost over a comparable distance On the contrary, in the case of FSO, only a very small fraction of the transmitted light actually makes it to the receiver Therefore, the amount of transmitted power needed to achieve comparable distances is significantly higher in the case of FSO than in the case of fiber optics Based on the transmitter and receiver techniques, FSO systems can be divided into two broad categories: active systems and passive systems
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Active System Active FSO systems consist of active electro-optic components to transmit and receive data Electro-optical devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or laser diodes are used to generated modulated signals to be transmitted Electrooptical devices such as PN diodes or avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are used to receive and demodulate the received optical signals LEDs used in FSO devices are close cousins of LEDs used widely as electronic displays and are even closer to LEDs used in remote controls and IrDA devices In a typical FSO system, LEDs are modulated at a much higher rate than LEDs in IrDA Besides being less expensive than laser diodes, LED also has the benefit of being a source of incoherent light The incoherent light makes FSO systems based on LEDs safer (for eyes) than those based on laser diodes Additionally, it also makes such systems less susceptible to effects of atmospheric scintillation, a topic to be discussed in more detail later Laser diodes offer their own sets of benefits For one, laser generates a much narrower band of optical spectrum, making it easier to eliminate background light at the receiver by using a narrowband optical filter, a benefit that will be discussed in more detail in Section Receive Field of View (FoV) In general, more optical power can be
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generated using laser diodes than can be done with LEDs Lasers also have optical properties that make them more suitable for very long-range FSO systems Passive Fiber Coupled Systems Unlike active systems, passive systems do not contain any active electro-optical components as part of the communication subsystem Passive Fiber Coupled Systems (PFCS) are designed to directly couple optical signals coming out of a fiber-optic cable to its transmission optics without electrically regenerating the signals Similarly, they are designed to collect and inject the received optical signal directly into the fiber-optic cable without electrically regenerating it In its simplest comparative description, PFCS can be thought of as serving the same purpose as the directional antenna in RF wireless There are two key benefits of PFCS technology First, such systems are independent of the underlying data transmission rate because they do not regenerate the signal electrically They can truly serve as a means of wireless fiber extension Second, such systems (when designed with the right kind of optical components) can support multiple wavelength transmission, making them viable for transmission of WDM signals Both of these benefits can bring the virtually unbounded capacity of the fiber-optic world to the wireless world, something that will never be matched by RF wireless technology Such systems, even though proven in the field at data rates as high as 40 Gbps, have yet to find their way into mainstream FSO product offerings in a commercially viable way However, as demand increases and technology advances, costs will continue to decrease, enabling such FSO technology to enter the mainstream communication world as an economically viable technology Optics is a key component of FSO technology, and this is where it differs most significantly from fiber-optic technology and draws closer to RF wireless technology Optics in FSO systems play the same role as antennas in RF communications They allow the creation of a narrow beam of light to be transmitted They also allow for the collection of optical signals at the receiving end The optics technology used in FSO systems are the same ones found in other optical systems such as telescopes and cameras Therefore, the technology is very mature and well proven
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