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Transmit Optics The transmit optics in an FSO system consist of optical components such as lenses and/or mirrors The transmit optics serve the purpose of collecting the light from the transmit source such as the LED, laser, or fiber-optic cable and then transmitting it in the form of a narrow beam of light Such beams are characterized by two parameters: beamwidth and divergence A simple form of transmit optics is illustrated in Figure 92 Transmit Beam Width The beamwidth is the measure of the diameter of the transmit beam as it launches out of the system The desirability for a larger beamwidth is in its ability to transmit more optical power while meeting the safety requirements mandated by government agencies FSO system safety, as regulated by government agencies,
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Lens Signal source (LED, laser diode) The width of the beam as it comes out of the transmitter receiver defines the beamwidth of the system Transmit beam
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The angle of the transmit beam defines the divergence of the transmitter
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Transmit beam creates a large footprint at the receiving end
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Figure 92 A typical transmit optic and transmit beam profile
depends on the optical power per unit cross-sectional area of the beam Therefore, systems with larger beamwidths can maintain the same level of eye safety while transmitting more total power than systems with smaller beamwidths For example, an FSO system can transmit four times as much power as one with half its transmit beamwidth while maintaining the same level of eye safety Another benefit of using a wider beamwidth is in reducing the effect of atmospheric scintillation Scintillation is an atmospheric phenomenon commonly observed as the twinkling of stars or distant light sources Scintillation produces a similar effect on FSO systems, causing fluctuation in optical signals over long propagation distances Wider beams can reduce the overall signal fluctuation caused by scintillation because of the averaging effect over a greater area Scintillation will be discussed in more detail later in separate section on this subject Both of the benefits derived from larger transmit beamwidths can also be achieved by FSO systems using multiple transmitters For example, an FSO system that uses four transmit beams of 1-in diameter can achieve the same transmit power level and the same safely level as a system using a single 2-in diameter transmit beam In fact, a system with four separate transmit beams can achieve a better scintillation immunity The downside of a system with either wider transmit beams or multiple transmit beams is the size, weight, and cost of the system The optical components required to create large beamwidths are not only bigger and heavier but can be significantly more
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costly than smaller optical components Some of the benefits of the large transmit beam may not be of any significance for the particular application being considered For example, for short-range links, the effect of scintillation is insignificant Transmit Beam Divergence Transmit beam divergence measures the degree of beam spreading as it propagates away from the transmitter Divergence is the property, measured in degrees or radian, that identifies the spreading factor of the transmit beam The smaller the divergence, the less spread out the beam is In any wireless communication system, such spreading of the signal is one of the greatest sources of signal loss To illustrate the point, consider Figure 92 where two FSO systems are located a half mile from each other Let s assume the transmit beam divergence is about 1 degree, a typical value for an FSO system By the time the signal arrives at the location of the receiver, the transmit beam would have spread enough to create a beam 46 ft in radius Unless a receiver with a diameter of 46 ft is used to collect all the light, an impractical proposition, any practically sized receiver would not be able to collect most of the signal In fact, in the case of this example, a typical FSO system with a 6-in diameter receiver would be able to collect only about 1/10000th of the total power arriving at the receiving end Significantly reducing divergence requires higher precision optics and a higher precision manufacturing process For example, to recover 1/10th the transmitted signal by a 6-in receiver at a distance of 05 miles from a transmitter, the transmitted beam needs to have a divergence of about 0034 degrees Such a system requires much more precise components and manufacturing processes than a system with 1 degree of divergence Though technically feasible, the cost of such high precision systems may not make them economically viable in all applications Systems with a narrower beam divergence also pose a significant challenge to the task of aligning FSO links and maintaining alignment during their operation For example, for the system with 0035 degrees divergence, a deflection of the transmit beam by as little as 0035 degrees can mispoint the transmit signal away from the receiver As explained later, such mispointing is quite common, but mechanisms to maintain alignment within such small angles, though technically feasible, can be very costly Receive Optics The receiver optics serve purposes exactly complementary to those of the transmit optics The receiver optics collect the light signal and focus it onto the detector (or into the fiber-optic cable in the case of a passive system) They are made out of combination of one or more lenses and/or mirrors From all perspectives, the receive optics in FSO systems serve the same purpose as antennas do in RF wireless systems they collect the signal The receive optics are characterized by two key parameters: the receive aperture and the field of view (FoV) A simple form of receive optics is illustrated in Figure 93 Receive Aperture Receive aperture is the diameter of the receiver through which the received signal is collected It is, therefore, a key factor in determining the amount of light collected by the receiver A receiver with twice the receive aperture can collect
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