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without having to use too large a divergence and FoV The key benefit of using a passive mean of compensation is that it can compensate for all small-scale vibrations no matter what their frequency and vibration characteristics are It is, therefore, often desirable to use FSO systems with sufficiently large divergence to compensate for fast movements, combined with simple automated tracking to compensate for large-scale mispointing However, even though both passive and active means can compensate for mispointings, there is still a need for a solid foundation for installing an FSO system Having solid foundations can only make the link more reliable Regardless of whether tracking is used to compensate for fast movements or slow movements, the underlying technology is a very mature technology The limitation of tracking is not about developing a new technology but instead about making it commercially viable Slow tracking systems are significantly more cost-effective than fast tracking systems
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Before considering FSO for deployment as a viable technology, it is important to understand how atmospheric effects affect FSO links and their impact on the link margin of FSO systems The link margin of an FSO system represents the margin on the amount of received optical power available for the system to perform to its specifications It is expressed in terms of dB and is computed as 10 times the Log of the ratio of the available received power and the minimum required power For example, a link with a 0 dB link margin has just enough optical power at its receiver to perform to its specifications A link with a 3 dB link margin has twice as much optical power at its receiver as would be necessary for it to perform to its specifications Link margins for FSO systems are often specified for various weather conditions and link distances However, the actual available link margin may be different as weather conditions or installation properties change For example, a system specified to have 9 dB of margin in clear weather conditions when operating at a distance of 200 m would most likely have a margin of 8 dB during heavy rain The same system would have only 3 dB of margin when operating at a distance of 400 m in a clear weather conditions Having a extra link margin allows a system to operate normally even in conditions that can reduce the amount of optical power received by the system For example, with sufficient link margins, FSO systems are immune to weather conditions that are detrimental to signal propagation The amount of link margin needed depends on the distance of the communication link and the weather condition against which immunity is sought
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The effect of weather on optical wireless is very well understood Weather can produce conditions that can affect the propagation of the optical signal through the atmosphere These weather conditions include fog, haze, rain, and snow The net effect of any one of these weather conditions on an FSO link is the reduction (or loss) of the total amount of received optical power
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The loss in received optical power due to a weather condition is expressed in terms of dB and is computed as 10 times the Log of the factor by which the received optical power is reduced The loss of an optical signal due to weather conditions has been well studied Table 91 provides a list of various weather conditions and the loss caused per km on a typical optical wireless signal Loss at other distances can be derived simply by multiplying the loss per km listed in the table by the desired distance in km For example, heavy rain results in signal loss of about 4 dB/km, which means an FSO system operating at 05 km would experience an additional signal loss of 2 dB during heavy rain The dB loss/km for the IR signal of FSO is also correlated to visibility during these weather conditions A sample data correlating visibility and weather conditions with dB/km attenuation of 850 nm signal is provided in Table 91 The data can be used to compute the link margin of a 850-nm FSO link in various weather conditions For example, according to the table, a moderate fog, which has a visibility of 500 m, causes an attenuation of about 21 dB/km This means an FSO link operating at 1 km would need 21 dB of link margin for it to be able to overcome atmospheric attenuation during conditions of moderate fog An FSO link at 500 m would need half that amount, 105 dB of margin, for it to be able to overcome the same weather condition In order for an optical wireless system to be immune to all weather conditions, its link margin during the worst condition has to be at least 0 dB From Table 91, it is evident that the worst weather condition, dense fog, can produce a loss of as much as 270 dB/km In order for an FSO link at 1 km to be immune from all weather conditions, it needs to have a clear weather margin of 270 dB Just to put this number in perspective, for a typical commercially available FSO system to have a margin of 270 dB at 1 km, it needs to be transmitting at least 1020 watts of optical power, a number that is not even a theoretical possibility Therefore, such FSO systems at 1 km may never be immune from all weather conditions
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TABLE 91 Weather Condition Dense fog Thick fog Mod fog Light fog Thin fog Haze Light haze Clear Very clear
Signal Loss Due to Various Weather Conditions [1] Precipitation Amount (mm/hr) Visibility 0 m 50 m 200 m Snow Snow Snow Snow Snow Snow Cloudburst Heavy rain Mod rain Light rain Drizzle 100 25 125 25 025 500 m 700 m 1 km 19 m 2 km 28 m 4 km 59 m 10 km 181 m 20 km 23 m 50 km dB Loss/km 27165dB 5957dB 2099 1265, 926 422, 396 258, 162 096, 044 024, 022 019, 006
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