Deployment of Wireless Access Network in Objective-C

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Deployment of Wireless Access Network
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One of the most promising applications of optical wireless mesh with Carrier Ethernet services is as a backhaul to interconnect RF wireless access points such as WiFi access points A wireless access network may consist of several access points distributed throughout a region, as illustrated in Figure 96 Such access points may be installed on small buildings, cell towers, traffic light posts, or lampposts Depending on the density of the service provided, they may be spaced at 50 m to a few hundred meters Located with each access point is an optical wireless mesh node, enabling each access point to be interconnected with one or more access points in its line-of-sight The transport technology provided to each of the access points can be provided by one or more of the Ethernet services as defined by MEF For example, all the access points may be served by a single E-LAN service Alternately, each access point may be served by multiple E-LAN services, with each E-LAN service dedicated to a specific purpose For example, each E-LAN service may be dedicated to a particular WISP provider, enabling multiple providers to share the same wireless infrastructure In a different deployment scenario, each E-LAN may serve only a subset of access points, enabling segmentation of the network
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Figure 96 Optical wireless mesh interconnecting wireless access points
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The ongoing evolution of free space optics can be grouped in two fronts, those driven by prevailing commercial interests and those that are at the forefront of the cutting edge of the technology, driven by military interests The commercial front of FSO technology is primarily limited to a set of vendors introducing slightly higher-capacity and lower-cost products, each trying to differentiate from the other Since commercially available technology already achieves gigabit per second and more bandwidth, meeting or exceeding bandwidth needs of most of the applications, developments in the commercial front have mostly been on cost reduction rather than performance enhancements Perhaps the only deviation from this general trend has been the mesh networking approach where FSO technology is taken from being a point-to-point link technology to a mesh networking technology The dominant portion of development at the cutting edge of FSO technology has been occurring at military and university laboratories There have been significant efforts and development on optical technologies to overcome atmospheric effects such as fog and clouds by means of techniques such as famto-second pulses Efforts have also been made on developing highly sensitive detectors such as photon-counting detectors University labs have also conducted research efforts on networking aspects of FSO technology Some of these developments are likely to make their way to commercial applications soon, while the others, though they may take much longer time to become commercially viable, are bound to have a lasting impact on the wireless communication technology landscape
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9
Economic Assessment
In the absence of an optical wireless mesh solution, the only feasible method of providing more than 10 Mbps of Ethernet service in a metro environment is by means of extending the reach of fiber to every building to be served The building of such fiber extension takes a few months of planning, permits, and actual deployment Besides the time and the lost opportunity cost, the cost of laying fiber to each service point can range from $50,000 to $120,000 Therefore, in the absence of alternate solutions, the cost of trying to deliver Ethernet services can be staggering With the deployment of optical wireless mesh networking, the cost can be significantly lower Consider an identical scenario of trying to deliver Ethernet services in a metro environment by means of fiber extension ; the up-front capital expenditure incurred per service point can be lowered to close to $10,000 Provided the presence of a fiber at one location (POP), the cost of extending the service by one hop to a neighboring building can be achieved by means of an FSO link and Ethernet service capable switching equipment located at the service point The cost of such a switch can be less than $5,000 since the number of ports needed for such switches is fairly low The cost of an FSO link can also be less than $10, 000 (This assumes that the distance between the POP and service point is less than a few hundred meters so that FSO links designed for short-range operation can be used FSO links deployed over more than a few hundred meters may not provide the kind of resiliency demanded by service providers However, even if FSO systems capable of longer ranges were deployed, the overall cost per service point would not be significantly higher) Therefore, the upfront capital expenditure (CAPEX) of extending the fiber-like services to a new service point can be less than $15,000 per service point From each service point, services can be further extended to more service points for additional upfront CAPEX of less than $15,000 for each added service point This cost is almost an order of magnitude less than the cost of extending fiber-grade, as discussed previously The cost as well as the manageability of the network can be further improved by using optical wireless mesh equipment instead of integrating different equipment as discussed in the preceding section Such mesh equipment consists of multiple FSO links and a switching engine integrated in a single package, reducing overall cost and simplifying manageability
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