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SONET Multiplexing: Virtual Concatenation, LCAS, and Generic Framing Protocol
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A SONET multiplexer combines STS-1s by interleaving bytes to create a higher-order STS-N The protocol is designed to scale by increasing the size of the multiplexed channel Figure 101
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STS-1 STS-3 3:1 3:1 3:1 3:1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-3 STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-3 STS-1 STS-1 16:1
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STS-48
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Figure 101 SONET multiplexing
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is a block diagram showing a possible method to construct an STS-48 from 48 STS-1s In Figure 101, the multiplexing occurs in stages as the STS-1s are first combined into STS-3s, and then the STS-3s are combined into an STS-48 The STS-48 can be converted directly into an OC-48 and transmitted through a fiber or passed to another SONET device In SONET, for the transport of payloads that exceed the payload capacity of the standard set of Synchronous Payload Envelops (SPEs), contiguous concatenation can be used As the name implies, the VTs or STSs used for the concatenation must be adjacent and free of other traffic When using SONET contiguous concatenation, contiguous bandwidth must be maintained throughout the whole transport network Because of the need to keep the bandwidth contiguous throughout the network, the maximum bandwidth of the concatenated pipe is limited to that of the highest SONET rate commercially available today, OC-192/ STS-192 In the future, these rates could reach OC-768/STS-768 or higher Additionally, SONET contiguous concatenation cannot be done across SPEs that are on different SONET line signals These constraints can result in stranded bandwidth Figure 102 is a block diagram of the SONET multiplexer supporting contiguous concatenated STS-3c and STS-12c payloads
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Virtual concatenation allows an arbitrary number of STS-1s to be concatenated and transported across a SONET network The STS-1s do
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Virtual Concatenation and LCAS
STS-1 STS-3 3:1 3:1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-3 4:1 STS-1 STS-1 4:1
OC-48
STS-3c
STS-12c
Figure 102 SONET contiguous concatenation
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not need to be contiguous and can be transported independently across the network and recombined at the transmission endpoint Only the source and destination are involved in the virtual concatenation process virtual concatenation allows concatenation of up to 256 STS-1/STS-3c SPEs and up to 64 VT15/2/3/6 SPEs Figure 103 is a block diagram illustrating the capabilities of virtual concatenation for STS rates Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) is a two-way handshake protocol designed to change the capacity of a virtual concatenated signal dynamically LCAS must be used in conjunction with virtual concatenation and is not able to create or adjust the virtual concatenated circuit Virtual Concatenation is used to build the pipe, and LCAS dynamically defines which of the concatenated group members is carrying traffic LCAS messages are continuously exchanged Changes in the link capacity are sent in advance so that the receiver can switch to the new configuration as soon as it arrives This allows for dynamic resizing of the concatenated channel or the temporary removal of a failed member link LCAS utilizes the same H4 path overhead bytes that virtual concatenation uses Because the H4 bytes are in the SONET path overhead, only the path terminating elements are involved in maintaining the circuit In order to utilize this concatenated channel, a method to distribute client data across the STS-1s and recover them at the far end is required
STS-1 STS-3 3:1 STS-1-3v STS-1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-3 3:1 STS-1 STS-1 16:1 STS-1 STS-1-5v STS-3 3:1 3:1 STS-1 STS-1 STS-48
STS-1 STS-3 STS-1 STS-1
Figure 103 SONET virtual concatenation
TDM: Circuit Bonding
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) The Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) standard was created by ITU to standardize framing capability for upper layer protocols to run over transmission systems There are two favors of GFP: Frame-MappedMode and Transparent Mode A Frame-Mapped GFP is a Protocol Data Unit (PDU)- oriented adaptation mode It is defined as a type of GFP mapping in which a client signal frame is received and mapped in its entirety into one GFP Frame A Transparent Mode is a block-code oriented adaptation mode In this mode, a blockcoded client characters are decoded and then mapped into a fixed length GFP frame and may be transmitted immediately without waiting for the receipt of a complete client data frame
The circuit-bonding platform is a combination of GFP, virtual concatenation, and Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) LCAS has the ability to increase or decrease the number of client connections or the size of a given pipe Circuit bonding is engineered to utilize the entire capacity of the bonded pipe, making all the bandwidth available to users Figure 104 shows the client and line side view of circuit bonding Circuit bonding allows
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