qrcoder c# TDM: Circuit Bonding in Objective-C

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TDM: Circuit Bonding
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bandwidth available than the sum of the segments connected to each workstation This oversubscription is a useful tool for a network designer to control network costs while offering adequate performance Broadly defined, oversubscription is a state that allows more traffic to be switched or routed over a given transmission link than that link is normally capable of transmitting In other words, the sum of the possible input to a given link is greater than the link itself In general, all networks have some form of oversubscription Although it is often associated with packet networks, even circuit networks are oversubscribed In fact, you could argue that the whole purpose of switching and routing is to oversubscribe links purposely For example, in a voice network, the entire capacity of voice circuits subtending from the switch is, in practice, always larger than the capacity of the Inter-Machine Trunks (IMTs) connecting the switch to other switches If every caller on one switch tries to place a call to the same far-end switch at the same time, the IMT would not have enough capacity Therefore, the IMT can be said to be oversubscribed Things are similar in the packet world of Ethernet switches Take, for example, a simple Ethernet switch with five 10BaseT ports and one 100BaseT uplink There is no way for the 10BaseT ports to overfill the 100BaseT uplink because it always has enough capacity If instead the switch had fifteen 10BaseT ports and one 100BaseT uplink, it would be possible for the client ports to send more data than the uplink could carry, resulting in network congestion With simple Ethernet, there is no management of the traffic The Ethernet switches essentially work on a first-come, first-served basis With the addition of IEEE 8021q, Ethernet becomes capable of client prioritization Although this standard is primarily a definition of VLAN, it also includes 3 bits that can be used to assign priority to individual Ethernet frames An IEEE 8021p-compliant switch uses these three bits to manage traffic in congestion situations The circuit-bonding platform is also capable of oversubscription It differs from simple Ethernet in that it allows hard quality of service guarantees to individual client ports Some of the QoS features are discussed next Guaranteed Bandwidth If a client is provisioned with 20 Mbps of guaranteed bandwidth, it gets that amount as long as the line facilities are not reduced due to link failure or deprovisioning If a single Ethernet client is provisioned to have multiple priority bandwidth assignments (ie, 10 Mbps of guaranteed, 10 Mbps of shared/burst, and 10 Mbps of best effort), it is up to the client source device to prioritize its own packet streams appropriately The circuit-bonding device will always transport the guaranteed bandwidth first, followed by the shared/burst, and then the best effort as long as sufficient line bandwidth exists Priorities and Provisioning
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A circuit-bonded system can tag guaranteed, burst, and best effort per port (ie, DS3/OC-n) A service provider can assign priorities on a per-client basis This stands in contrast to traditional Multi-Service Provisioning Platforms (MSPPs), which cannot provide prioritization; this needs to be done at Layers 2 and 3
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Each client gets bandwidth assigned; all three priorities can be assigned on a block of bandwidth That bandwidth is weighted based on client provisioning A roundrobin approach allows the service provider to prioritize one customer over the next fairly This means that clients will be degraded proportionally across customers on a weighted basis; all will be degraded by an equal percentage Rate limiting is based on a dual leaky bucket because there are two priority levels (guaranteed and best-effort traffic) The circuit bonding system also allows burst traffic Pause frames are used to slow down the transmitter if the client has surpassed its capacity A pause frame is also passed on to the customer Rate limiting on the circuit- bonding system is accomplished at the client I/O port by using IEEE 8023 PAUSE frames (if supported by the client device, otherwise, it s accomplished by dropping packets) Flow control, based on client priority classes, is applied using PAUSE frames as well Each client can be provisioned with guaranteed, shared, and/or best-effort bandwidth This bandwidth can be provisioned in granularities of 1Mb for 10/100 Mbps Ethernet and 10Mb for Gigabit Ethernet The flow control applies consistently to an entire client signal
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Service Management Service management for circuit-bonding systems is well defined by the ITU A recently approved ITU standard on service management includes both architecture and requirement definitions for circuit bonding optical- and copper-based systems While additional capabilities are being defined in the standards, it is safe to say that service management for circuit bonding will provide full service management capabilities for the carriers
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Circuit bonding can be used to carry TDM traffic as well as Ethernet traffic, making it backward compatible with various types of client traffic It can be used to carry traditional voice as well as the modern VoIP traffic Circuit bonding can also be used to carry Frame Relay traffic in addition to the Ethernet traffic for IP access
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