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Ethernet in the LAN 1998 1995
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Figure 17 Ethernet s path to dominance
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speeds more compatible with those required in inter-LAN networking (connecting LANs across a distance of tens of miles) and was well suited as a platform for the emerging data services Service Providers were, to a limited extent, already offering Ethernet-based Point to Point (Ethernet extension) and Multipoint (transparent LAN) services
The Failed Challenge of ATM and IP in the LAN
As a side note, it is important to mention two other technologies that also emerged as candidate LAN technologies Unlike the ones discussed previously, however, these originated as technologies to be used in Service Provider networks but were later positioned as LAN technologies as well to compete with Ethernet They were not successful Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), a cell-based connection-oriented technology that successfully focused on enabling a converged infrastructure beyond the LAN (see Ethernet: Evolution Beyond the LAN ) and was positioned as a competitor to Ethernet in the LAN in the 1990s It presented a very attractive option since it possessed several advantages over the traditional LAN Ethernet It provided much more sophisticated traffic management and could support both packet-oriented and circuit-switched services (hence touted as the convergent platform); at that time, its speeds were also higher (OC-3 or 155M) than Fast Ethernet (100M) Given
Ethernet: From LAN to the WAN
its success beyond the LAN (in metro networks), ATM in the LAN would have also meant a seamless connection to ATM networks beyond the LAN And LAN Emulation (LANE), a mechanism to simulate the characteristics of a LAN (connectionless, multicast, etc) over a switched ATM backbone was also developed However, it was significantly complex to engineer ATM LANs This coupled with the fact that Ethernet continued to evolve mitigated and even surpassed the functional advantages of ATM in a short time, and that too at a much more attractive price,33 ultimately resulting in Ethernet prevailing easily A similar argument held sway against the use of Layer 3/IP34 routers in LANs IP routers became commonplace beyond the LAN, mainly due to their scalability and resiliency benefits In fact, most networking applications including the Internet were (and continue to be) built using IP routers However, these advantages were not as significant in geographically smaller LANs They were complex to set up, required the enterprise to relinquish some control,35 and the Ethernet ports employed in routers were significantly more expensive (up to 10 times) than the corresponding ones in Layer 2 devices Thus IP s appeal was significantly diminished against Ethernet Basically, these technologies (ATM/IP) had to be unnaturally forced-fit to LAN environments and consequently were less than optimal36 in terms of the ever important criteria of price and simplicity Interestingly Ethernet s origins in the LAN actually better positioned it in (Service Provider) networks beyond the LAN vis- -vis ATM/IP This will be evident from the next section, Ethernet: Evolution Beyond the LAN
Ethernet: Evolution Beyond the LAN
The need to network37 between distant locations in the same metropolitan area or to even more far-flung areas was a natural evolution The benefits were significant for enterprises (actually for anyone who wanted to network) and included the following [7]:
Unprecedented means of remote communication Now a user at a workstation in one office could communicate with a colleague or customer or supplier half way around the globe With the advent of globalization, and communication applications such as e-mail, the importance of such communications became even more pronounced and productivity in the enterprise increased significantly
33 Due to the huge economies of scale it enjoyed 34 IP refers to the Internet protocol in the network layer (which is Layer 3 in the OSI model) 35
Because the enterprise is required to share its IP addressing with the Service, some control is given up in terms of how they manage their LANs 36 The underlying price-points and operational aspects of these technologies were simply untenable to those expected in the very cost sensitive and operationally simple LAN 37 For exchanging data; note that networking for voice preceded long before, and a well-developed infrastructure to support local and long distance (including international) calling has existed for years Billions of dollars have been invested in this voice-optimized circuit-switching infrastructure
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