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by Paul Havala Since its standardization nearly 20 years ago, SONET technology has grown into the predominant method of optical access for North American service providers It is only natural that these providers would want to use their tremendous installed base of SONET equipment to deploy Ethernet services This spurred the initial Ethernet over SONET (EoS) implementations nearly 10 years ago Since then, EoS has matured quite a bit The late 1990s saw the birth of the multiservice provisioning platform (MSPP), a network element that combined SONET transport, SONET switching, and data capabilities such as EoS Soon after, several key technologies, including the generic framing procedure (GFP), virtual concatenation (VCAT), and link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS), helped to increase the bandwidth efficiency of EoS implementations and to lower their costs More recently, service providers have focused on the deployment of Carrier Ethernet services This has heightened interest in EoS solutions because the underlying SONET technology enables these solutions to provide strong support for a number of the Carrier Ethernet attributes, most notably reliability, quality of service (QoS), and standardized services This chapter explores the technological innovations that have enabled EoS to support Carrier Ethernet services and looks at the unique and important role of the MSPP It also explores many of the issues that service providers face as they deliver Carrier Ethernet services using EoS solutions and the issues that equipment vendors face as they develop the EoS solutions to support these services
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EoS represents a marriage of two important technologies, one from the telephony world, and one from the enterprise data world This section provides an overview of the key EoS technical concepts It assumes that the reader has some familiarity with Ethernet, either through prior knowledge or from the material in the preceding chapters
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11
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It, therefore, focuses on SONET, the EoS technology that enables SONET to carry Ethernet, and the application of EoS technology within multi-service provisioning platform (MSPP) systems
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SONET has its roots in voice telephony In the 1980s, many of the Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) began deploying fiber-optic transport systems, mainly to transport plesiochronous DS-1 signals (1544Mbps); these DS1s typically carried 64kbps voice channels, either from a customer location to a digital switch or between digital switches Because these fiber-optic transport systems were based mainly on vendor-proprietary technology, the RBOCs commissioned Bellcore (now Telcordia) to develop a uniform technology for fiber-optic transport Bellcore dubbed this technology Synchronous Optical Network (SONET), and introduced it into ANSI committee T1X1 in 1985 ANSI ratified the SONET standard in 1988 [1] In 1989, CCITT (now ITU-T) standardized the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) [2], which is optimized to carry E1 signals (2048Mbps), but is in most other ways identical to SONET Synchronous Transport Signal-1 (STS-1) is the fundamental signal structure for SONET The bytes of the STS-1 may be represented by a 90-column 9-row structure; the first three columns (27 bytes) contain the transport overhead, whereas the remaining 87 columns (783 bytes) carry the STS payload This structure is transmitted every 125 s, resulting in a bit rate of 51840Mbps The Synchronous Payload Envelope (SPE) is an 87 9-byte structure that occupies the STS payload The SPE has its own overhead, the Path OverHead (POH) An STS-1 SPE carries a single DS3 (44736Mbps) or up to 28 DS1s Generally, the SPE will not align with STS-1 boundaries A mechanism called a pointer (a byte in the STS-1 transport overhead) indicates where the SPE begins inside the STS payload The pointer mechanism provides a simple, elegant way for SONET to map plesiochronous DS3 or DS1 signals into a synchronous SONET payload1 When small variations between the clock rates of the DS3 signal and the SONET network build up over time, the SONET network simply shifts the location of the SPE (and the DS3 it carries) inside the STS-1 payload and adjusts the pointer Figure 111 illustrates the STS-1 frame and its relationship to the SPE The STS-1 frame structure represents the basic building block for SONET signals Fixed multiples of STS-1 signals may be byte-interleaved to form higher-rate signals such as STS-3, STS-12, and STS-48, etc (see Table 111) This increases the number of STS-1 payloads that a SONET interface can support As a way to increase the payload size (not just the number of STS-1 payloads), the payloads of N STS-1 signals (N = 3, 12, 48, 192, and 768) may be concatenated into a single STS-Nc SPE Most routers use some form of payload concatenation (eg, STS-48c) on their Packet over SONET (PoS) interfaces
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SONET systems carry DS1s within the STS-1 SPE by first mapping them within synchronous virtual tributaries (VTs); an STS-1 SPE carries up to 28 VT15 signals (and therefore up to 28 DS1s) As with STS-1 signals, each VT has a corresponding SPE and uses a pointer to locate the SPE within the VT payload capacity
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