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delivery of Ethernet services with the delivery of circuit services over the burgeoning SONET infrastructure This drove the need for network elements that could carry Ethernet over SONET The fundamental technical issue with EoS technology is the mapping of Ethernet frames, which ride on asynchronous interfaces, within synchronous SONET payloads While there is nothing technically foreboding about this (recall that SONET was invented to carry plesiochronous signals within synchronous payloads), the industry first needed to define a standard set of protocols to map Ethernet frames into the SONET SPE Two methods of mapping Ethernet into SONET emerged in the mid-1990s Ethernet over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) proved a natural choice, since ATM s future looked bright at that time, and standards, including the ATM Forum s user network interface (UNI) 31 specification [4], already included a mapping of ATM cells into SONET payloads If Ethernet frames could be mapped into ATM cells, then they could be carried over SONET The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) defined the mapping of Ethernet into ATM in the well-known Request for Comments (RFC) specification, RFC 1483 (now superseded by RFC 2684 [5]) Fujitsu s FASTLANE product, first introduced in 1997, featured one of the industry s first ATM-based EoS implementations FASTLANE comprised a set of plug-in cards for Fujitsu s popular FLM 150 ADM system Figure 113a illustrates the FLM 150 ADM Meanwhile, several router vendors were developing SONET-based router interfaces using the point-to-point protocol (PPP) and high-level data-link control (HDLC) protocol to map IP packets into the SONET payload [6, 7] Some SONET ADM vendors adopted a variant of this method to map Ethernet frames into SONET Positron s Osiris product (shown in Figure 113b) featured an early implementation of PPP/HDLC-based EoS
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(a) Fujitsu FLM 150 ADM
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Figure 113 Early EoS implementations
(b) Positron Osiris XTS
While these mappings worked and had some degree of standards compliance, technical shortcomings hampered both Ethernet-over-ATM-over-SONET was saddled with the infamous cell tax the large amount of protocol overhead required to segment variable-length datagrams (such as Ethernet frames) into fixed-length, 53-byte ATM cells And, while ATM technology has found several successful (and rather large) niche deployments, it has not enjoyed the ubiquitous deployment, and subsequent reduction in costs, that many had hoped would happen HDLC-based implementations manifested a different technical problem bandwidth expansion HDLC uses a flag (a predefined pattern of eight bits) to delimit frames When that same bit pattern appears within the frame (ie, as part of the actual user data), an escape sequence (a different predefined pattern of eight bits) is added so the receiving equipment does not confuse the bit pattern within the frame with a flag Every occurrence of the flag pattern within the frame results in an escape sequence and the frame growing by one octet When Ethernet is mapped into SONET using HDLC, the mapping overhead is nondeterministic and a function of the contents of the Ethernet frame This subtle issue can adversely affect the performance of networks and can prove difficult to identify as the culprit when performance problems do arise The industry clearly needed a standard EoS mapping that addressed the shortcomings of both the ATM and HDLC-based approaches In the late 1990s, several companies (led by Lucent Technologies) began working in ANSI T1X1 toward this end These efforts brought the generic framing procedure (GFP), which was standardized first in ANSI and then in ITU-T [8] GFP works much like a variable-length version of ATM Each GFP frame (see Figure 114) carries an Ethernet medium access control (MAC) frame GFP frames are transmitted continuously within the SONET SPE; idle GFP frames are transmitted when there is no Ethernet frame to carry GFP delimits frames using the Header Error Check field, much like ATM, and therefore obviates the need for flag sequences (and the resulting bandwidth expansion) GFP also provides relatively little protocol overhead; in fact, GFP is more efficient than IEEE 8023 Ethernet at mapping Ethernet frames into the physical layer3
IEEE 8023 Ethernet requires a minimum of 20 bytes of protocol overhead (12 bytes for the interframe gap and 8 bytes for the preamble/start of frame delimiter) between successive MAC frames Typical GFP implementations require only 12 bytes of protocol overhead (4 bytes for the core header, 4 bytes for the payload header, and 4 bytes for the payload FCS) to carry an Ethernet MAC frame (see Figure 11-4) Table 11-2 illustrates the reduced overhead of GFP
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