SONET/MSPP in Objective-C

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SONET/MSPP
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Payload length indicator cHEC (CRC-16) Core header
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Payload Header
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Optional payload FCS (CRC-32) cHEC: Core HEC CRC: Cyclic Redundancy Check HEC: Header Error Check FCS: Frame Check Sequence Figure 114 GFP frame format
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ITU-T also standardized another EoS mapping, Link Access Protocol for SONET (LAPS) [9] Some early router and CPE implementations still use X86 for their EoS interfaces However, this mapping uses the fundamentals of HDLC and, therefore, carries its technical disadvantages Because of its technical superiority and broad basis in North American and international standards, GFP appears to be gaining momentum as the preferred EoS mapping While technologies such as GFP solve the most fundamental technical issue with EoS (ie, how does SONET actually carry Ethernet ), they do not address an issue that is nearly as critical: How does SONET carry Ethernet efficiently SONET was designed to carry DS1 and DS3 signals Its rate structure (see Table 111) is optimized for this Beyond the STS-3 rate, SONET rates grow by factors of four The fundamental Ethernet rates look nothing like DS1 or DS3 rates and grow in multiples of ten This means that, while GFP is a very efficient protocol, the rate mismatch of SONET and Ethernet can still result in tremendous bandwidth inefficiencies, as Table 112 illustrates Virtual concatenation (VCAT) helps address these inefficiencies by allowing SONET payloads to combine into a single, virtual payload VCAT provides a byte-wise inverse
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11
TABLE 112
EoS Bandwidth Ef ciency with VCAT Required EoS Bandwidth (500byte frames) 985Mbps 985Mbps 985Mbps Minimum SONET Rate STS-1 STS-3c STS-48c Bandwidth Ef ciency 199% 657% 411% Minimum SONET Rate with VCAT VT15-7v STS-1-2v STS-1-21v Bandwidth Ef ciency with VCAT 879% 994% 946%
Ethernet Interface Rate 10Mbps 100Mbps 1Gbps
multiplexing of the overall payload (eg, Ethernet frames mapped within GFP) over multiple SONET SPEs Low order virtual concatenation (LOVCAT) virtually concatenates VT15 payloads, while high order virtual concatenation (HOVCAT) virtually concatenates STS-1 or STS-3c payloads The notation for VCAT signals carries an additional tag that identifies the number of virtually concatenated SPEs; for example, an HOVCAT signal that combines five STS-3c SPEs would be designated an STS-3c-5v Table 112 shows how VCAT can improve EoS bandwidth efficiency All the VCAT intelligence resides at the endpoints of the virtually concatenated SONET paths; the SONET network knows nothing of VCAT and treats the paths as independent (eg, a different pointer identifies the location of each virtually concatenated STS signal, and each STS has its own POH) As a result, VCAT requires additional tools for the VCAT endpoints to control the grouping of links within a VCAT group (VCG) These tools allow VCAT to handle gracefully the addition and deletion of SONET paths within a VCG, due either to provisioning or to network failure or restoration The link capacity adjustment scheme (LCAS), which ITU-T has standardized [10, 11] provides these tools Figure 115 illustrates VCAT and LCAS
SONET network LCAS
LCAS controls the addition/deletion of STS paths to the VCG due to provisioning or failure/restoration LCAS
Ethernet
VCAT
VCAT
Ethernet
VCAT bytewise interleaves GFP frames over the STS SPE in the VCG EoS network Element Each SPE in the VCG is carried within a unique STS path, which may be switched and protected independently by the SONET network The SONET network does not need to know the STS paths are part of a VCG
EoS network element
Figure 115 VCAT and LCAS
SONET/MSPP
The Multi-Service Provisioning Platform (MSPP)
As EoS technology matures, it is finding its way into more service provider network equipment Specifically, the integration of EoS into the SONET ADM has given birth to a new product category the multi-service provisioning platform (MSPP) While the definition of this term has broadened over the past five years, the original MSPP usage referred to a SONET ADM that added packet technology (Ethernet, most importantly), as well as more advanced SONET capabilities such as full SONET switching Figure 116 illustrates an MSPP with Ethernet capabilities The Cerent 454 (now the Cisco ONS 15454) and Fujitsu s FLASHWAVE 4300 represent two of the earliest MSPP systems The marriage of EoS and the ADM is a natural one SONET ADMs are the fundamental building blocks for service providers optical access networks Most Ethernet services operate at high bandwidths that require optical access The MSPP enables a single device to handle optical access for all services Moreover, the GFP/VCAT/LCAS mapping features technical properties that lower the costs of MSPP deployment Not only do GFP/VCAT/LCAS provide a standard, efficient, and robust way to map Ethernet into SONET, they do so in a way that interoperates with legacy SONET equipment that is not EoS-enabled, such as traditional
Multi-service provisioning platform (MSPP) Ethernet I/F Ethernet I/F DS1 I/F DS1 I/F DS3 I/F DS3 I/F OC-N I/F OC-N I/F OC-N I/F SONET ADM OC-N I/F EoS
Ethernet switch (optional)
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