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Beginning in 2001 the Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) began work on defining a common set of specifications for Ethernet services These service definitions were intended to give service providers a common language and set of performance criteria that would allow them to offer Ethernet Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and provide common performance parameters for network-to-network interfaces between carriers While the Technical committee received proposals and drafted specifications the Marketing committee developed a common framework to discuss these specifications for Ethernet services that could be used by service providers around the globe As defined by the MEF Marketing committee the key characteristics of an Ethernet service include: (1) Support for multiple standardized services including TDM, (2) Quality of Service (QoS), (3) Reliability, (4)Management including Operations and Administration, (5) Scalability These were defined because carriers needed these qualities and they were, for the most part, absent from Ethernet equipment as it evolved in the Enterprise market 100 years of evolution of service provider networks had proven the value of these qualities However, the use of Ethernet in Enterprise LANs did not need the rigorous performance required of service providers Many vendors began to label their equipment carrier-class , yet this term had little meaning until the MEF began to define the meaning of Ethernet services Support for Multiple Standardized Services Including TDM Enterprise Ethernet switches and routers had few requirements to interface with circuits or cross connect circuits Occasionally, routers had a WAN port to pass packet traffic to a WAN circuit but that was the extent of their support Ethernet switches and routers are designed for packet traffic Support for circuits is practically unavailable However, for large service providers to build cost effective packet-based networks, support for circuits is required and the MEF s statement on multiple standardized services and TDM support indicates this as a requirement of Carrier Ethernet
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Quality of Service Every switch or router can offer some form of Quality of Service However, for the effective transport of voice and video the QoS performance must be quite rigorous Video and voice lose significant quality and become almost impossible to transport unless the network can guarantee tight controls on delay and delay variation Networks of Ethernet switched introduce queuing delay that makes accurate delivery of video and voice unpredictable Reliability A legacy of the voice network is a standard restoration time of < 50ms This evolved to ensure that a failure of a voice circuit could be correct in a time rapid enough to be undetectable to the human ear during a voice call Ethernet switching and routing have restoration mechanisms including Spanning Tree and Rapid Spanning tree that restore in under a minute for large networks, which is fine for many data applications but not within the tolerance required for voice and video However, when voice and video are transported on Ethernet networks it becomes a required characteristic of Carrier Ethernet Management Ethernet has historically used Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Management Information Bases (MIB) to communicate Ethernet network fault information This protocol however, is insufficient for the detailed link-by-link and endto-end fault detection and management required on large nationwide networks that may involve multiple service providers The definition of new protocols and specifications to provide this type of visibility is important for Carrier Ethernet support Scalability Historically, carriers had to offer bandwidth in very coarse increments TDM jumps from 15 Mbps to 45 Mbps This discontinuity in bandwidth introduced inefficiency into the WAN data network that Carrier Ethernet is designed to overcome In addition, scalability implies a need to span large geographies and support millions of customers on the same network, all while potentially keeping each customer data separate All five of these characteristics indicate areas where definitions, specifications, standards, and new approaches are required to make Ethernet packets and Ethernet services efficient and effective on large public networks The IEEE 80217 working group created the RPR standard to address these service provider requirements RPR and Multiservice Support As mentioned in point C above and discussed in greater detail later in this chapter, RPR provides 4 classes of service It also contains a ring wide protocol that makes each switch aware of the state of every link on the ring The practical result of these two mechanisms is that delay and delay variation on the RPR become irrelevant even for voice and video applications Hence, RPR networks support any data or circuit application with whatever performance is required for the application RPR and Quality of Service These same mechanisms ensure quality of service (see Table 121) An RPR ring is deterministic The performance of services put on a ring is
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guaranteed Along with classes of service and ring-wide awareness of the bandwidth state of each inter-switch link there is a transit buffer, described in greater detail later in the chapter, which passes any traffic through the switch without queuing This eliminates delay variation from the RPR network Ethernet switches, having no network-wide information about link-states on the network may require packets to queue at each node This introduces potential delay and delay variation into the system and makes video and voice services unpredictable RPR and Reliability A protocol called Resilient would obviously place a significant emphasis on availability Indeed, one of the primary characteristics of the protocol is its ability to restore any service in less than 50 ms The RPR protocol has two mechanisms to restore service; steer and wrap Applications are either more sensitive to lost packets or delay Steer and Wrap are mechanisms to minimize either packet loss or delay, depending on the requirements of the application RPR and Management RPR has a sophisticated topology discovery protocol and a management protocol built into the standard These features provide information that is useful for the management standards that are being defined in the ITU, the IEEE and the MEF Taken together this group of protocols will create and end-to-end OAM that will provide the kind of visibility required for large service provider Carrier Ethernet Networks RPR and Scalability RPR is defined for data rates from 155 Mbps up to 10 Gbps It also does nothing to preclude the introduction of faster data rate RPR The most likely candidates for higher speed RPR are 40 Gbps and 100 Gbps In addition the standard defines rings of up to 255 nodes and 2000 km in circumference
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