qrcoder c# Figure 1218 Data frame formats in Objective-C

Printing ECC200 in Objective-C Figure 1218 Data frame formats

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Extended frame format ttl base vontrol da Basic frame format 1 1 6 6 1 1 2 2 n 4 ttl base vontrol da sa da extended ttl base extended control hec protocol type sdu facs Covered by FCS Covered by FCS sa extended protocol type sdu facs 6 2 n 4 6 Covered by HEC Covered by HEC sa ttl base extended control hec 1 1 6 6 1 1 2
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Figure 1218 Data frame formats
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Basic frame format 1 1 6 6 1 1 2 2 n 4 ttl base vontrol da sa ttl base extended control hec protocol type sdu facs Covered by FCS Covered by HEC
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Control type value 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A
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Name CT_STATION_ATD CT_TOPO_PROT CT_TOPO_CHKSUM CT_LRTT_REQ CT_LRTT_RSP CT_FDD CT_OAM_ECHO_REQ CT_OAM_ECHO_RSP CT_OAM_FLUSH CT_OAM_ORG
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Figure 1219 Control frames format
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Resilient Packet Ring (RPR)
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Fairness frame format 1 1 6 2 2 4 Figure 1220 ttl base control sa control fairness header fair rate fcs Fairness and idle frame formats Covered by FCS Covered by FCS
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Idle frame format ttl base control sa control idle payload = all 0 fcs 1 1 6 4 4
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Figure 1220 illustrates the fairness and idle frame formats For fairness frames, the saControl field specifies the station that provided the values contained in the fairnessHeader and fairRate fields This station is not necessarily the station that generated this frame, which is always the upstream neighbor For idle frames it contains the address of the upstream neighbor station
Physical Interface
Two families of optional reconciliation sublayers are defined: The Packet PHYs and SONET/SDH PHYs The reconciliation sublayers map the MAC physical layer service primitives to standard electrical interfaces used by these PHYs To ensure interoperability, an interface that is compliant to the standard shall implement at least one of the defined PHYs Packet PHYs are 1 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s PHYs, similar to those defined by IEEE 8023, but with some deviations The SONET/SDH reconciliation sublayers provide interfaces to adaptation sublayers that specify either frame-mapped generic framing procedure (GFP), byte-synchronous high-level data link control (HDLC)-like framing, or link access procedure-SDH (LAPS) framing for SONET/SDH networks and PHYs operating at 155 Mb/s to 10 Gb/s or higher Figure 1221 shows the relationship between the RPR MAC and the other sublayers The requirements for the 1 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s Packet PHYs are described in IEEE 8023 The following exceptions and changes apply to the specifications:
Packet PHYs
Repeaters are not supported The minimum frame size is 16 bytes The maximum frame size is 9216 bytes Auto-negotiation is not used Flow control is disabled Remote fault is not generated by the transmitter and if present is ignored by the receiver
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MAC data path PHY service interface PRS-1 or PRS-10 OSI reference model layers Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-link Physical GMII XGMII XAUI SPI-X GRS SRS
Packet PHY
GFP adaptation
HDLC-like adaptation
SONET/SDH PHY
Medium Figure 1221 MAC relationship with the physical sublayers
Medium
SONET/SDH PHYs
RPR can be mapped to SONET/SDH through three types of adapta-
tion sublayers:
GFP HDLC-like LAPS
Frame-mapped GFP framing for RPR complies with ITU-T G7041 using a null extension header as defined by the extension header identifier (EXI), no GFP FCS field, and with a user payload identifier (UPI) corresponding to an RPR payload Byte-synchronous HDLC-like framing for RPR complies with IETF RFC 1662 using byte-stuffed framing, with references to PPP frames to be interpreted as RPR frames Instead of using LCP for link negotiation, byte-synchronous HDLC-like framing for RPR uses the following statically-defined link parameters:
Address and Control Field compression is always used The fields are not used The Protocol Field is not used
Resilient Packet Ring (RPR)
The FCS is neither computed nor appended to the frame The asynchronous control character map (ACCM) is not used
LAPS framing for RPR complies with ITU-T X85 / Y1321
Drivers for This Solution
The Ethernet we use today is significantly different than the Ethernet that was originally created in the IEEE 8023 group It is now full duplex and has lost CSMA/CD as an access method It has new physical interfaces, different data rates, new port aggregation features, VLAN functions and many other modifications that have been introduced over the years to facilitate new applications and uses In many ways the RPR MAC is another case of an IEEE standard that facilitates the evolution of Ethernet, in this case, to the WAN environment Sometime around Calendar Year 2000 packet traffic surpassed circuit traffic on service provider networks worldwide This fact and the success and proliferation of Ethernet equipment and packets on Corporate networks meant that a great percentage of the packet traffic on service provider networks were Ethernet packets Much of this traffic originated on TDM circuits with Enterprise customers However, existing circuit based networks while reliable were economically inefficient for carrying the increasing demands of Ethernet packet traffic So in 2000 the IEEE recognizing the difficulty of creating metropolitan networks with Ethernet equipment authorized the creation of the IEEE 80217 working group It had the charter of creating a Layer 2 protocol, specifically a Media Access Controller (MAC) that would be appropriate for transporting Ethernet and other packet traffic on fiber rings in metro and regional configurations Between 2000 and 2004 a standard was developed and approved Some of the characteristics of the Ethernet MAC that RPR was designed to overcome These have been discussed next
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