Existing SONET/SDH Transport in Objective-C

Creating Data Matrix in Objective-C Existing SONET/SDH Transport

Existing SONET/SDH Transport
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Another case where RPR may not be required is where the Ethernet packets are already traveling over traditional or next-generation SONET/SDH networks Restoration, Fairness, QoS, and OAM benefits of RPR are not required since the operation of SONET/SDH transport already provides these characteristics, albeit by different and less efficient methods These networks are quite common and indeed most data traffic currently traverses these networks One of the objectives in creation of the RPR protocol was to provide these characteristics in a pure packet transport network
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There are other cases where the RPR provides no benefit or may be inappropriate or impossible to implement A primary one is when the physical topology of the fiber does not allow for the creation of a ring RPR must operate in a ring configuration If the fiber topology is a mesh or tree configuration than creation of an RPR will be impossible Another case where IEEE 80217 is not required is one where the point-to-point link between switches or routers has approximately twice the peak required bandwidth as required by the applications or customers In this case the QoS is provided by over provisioning the link obviating the need for the rigorous QoS provided by RPR Likewise, if there are two fiber access routes (dual homing) to buildings that require communication services, the restoration properties of RPR are redundant
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RPR is deployed by service providers or by large organizations such as Fortune 500 companies, government, and educational institutions An individual RPR device usually contains other technologies to create a fully functioning system Interface ports to an RPR switch may be SONET/SDH, TDM, Ethernet or a combination of both In addition, VCAT and LCAS may be added to more efficiently fill SONET/SDH circuits MPLS and pseudo-wires can be added for traffic management and service interworking All of these technologies provide a backbone for high bandwidth service aggregation and connectivity Consumers or Enterprise data and voice service customers are often unaware of the existence of RPR in the networks their data traverses However, it is often a critical component that ensures that they receive the Service Level Agreements they are promised in their contracts The RPR portion of the network will sometimes begin at the Broadband Loop Carrier This is the first aggregation point in the network for many customers One level up
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from that is where the aggregation of circuits and packets occurs In this metro aggregation portion of the network, Multi Service Provisioning Platforms (MSPP) or Packet Transport Switches (PTS) aggregate traffic from DSLAMs, wireless base stations, SONET/SDH and Ethernet ports for transmission in the metro and regional networks Some companies use RPR between routers to form the data backbone in cable networks RPR is not usually used in the transcontinental core networks For that purpose IP Routers connect the packet traffic and SONET/SDH transport devices connect the circuit traffic All of these technologies could ride on top of Wave Division Multiplexing equipment
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The growth of packet traffic and the necessity of supporting Ethernet and IP is driving changes in all telecommunications equipment from the access (DSLAM) to metro transport (PTS, MSPP, WD) and core (Routing and Optical Transport) Every part of the network is under pressure to deliver, greater bandwidth, more control, better QoS, higher availability, more rapid service delivery, and lower operational expenses RPR can be implemented in equipment in the access, metro and core portions of the network As the table at the end of the chapter shows RPR has been implemented in Broadband Loop Carriers, DSLAMs, Packet Transport Switches, and Multiservice Provisioning Platforms and Switch/Routers Each of these categories of devices is evolving to support the new business cases required by service providers offering the latest in broadband services RPR was initially designed to support QoS, Availability, Management, and many of the key characteristics required in this new networking environment Still there are developments that are being implemented to deliver even greater functionality from the protocol Some of these are being done within the standards organizations and others are being done by vendors seeking to deliver more functionality within their devices Within the IEEE 80217 there is work being done to improve the spatial reuse capabilities of the RPR ring 80217b defines two types of connections: directed and undirected This has to do with efficient use of bandwidth when a remote address is not known by any of the RPR nodes If the relationship between a remote address and an RPR station address has not been established the frames will be flooded using undirected transmission As soon as the location of the remote node is learned directed transmission is used This way unknown frames travel the minimum hops to reach their destination Another standard based approach to this issue is to use MPLS Pseudowires to interconnect RPR rings Both of these approaches bring the ability to maintain both availability and QoS between multiple rings Since many users do not reside on the same metro or regional ring, the ability to interconnect rings is an important evolution of the solution In addition vendors are providing mechanisms for scaling RPR rings beyond 10Gbps The availability and cost of 40Gbps components and the complexity of switching at those speeds is limiting, for now, the introduction of faster rate connections However, the vendor community is using bonding technologies to aggregate 10 Gpbs rings so that it is now possible to create N 10 Gbps RPR rings for high bandwidth applications
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Resilient Packet Ring (RPR)
With this capability service providers can now create rings with very high aggregate data rates This capability will be important in dense urban environments where millions of customers are aggregated and in high bandwidth research applications that are required by business, government, and scientific applications
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