qrcoder c# In-band Signaling in Objective-C

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Whenever a port first appears, the bridge waits a certain amount of time, transmitting Spanning Tree Protocol packets, before it forwards traffic to or from that port This prevents temporary loops in case the port is connected to another bridge and should be blocked Other timers are invoked in certain situations to block ports for a short period of time to make it impossible to have even a temporary forwarding loop
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In-band Signaling
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In order to pass the control protocols that run the STP and protocols that are particular to single LANs, and in order to provide for future expansion, 16 multicast destination MAC addresses have been reserved These addresses are of the form, 01-80-C0-00-00-0x (hexadecimal), where the last 4 bits (x) range from 0 through F A non-VLAN bridge never forwards a frame from one port to another if it has one of these addresses as its destination Stations should never use these addresses, except when running protocols defined to use these addresses, generally between the station and the nearest bridge
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Bridging versus Routing
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Bridging has been presented so far as a natural progression based on the characteristics of the original Ethernet media and the need for plug-and-play interoperability It is now time to step back and see what the essential differences are between bridges and routers, which are a somewhat more familiar technology to many readers The essential characteristics of a bridged LAN and some of the differences between bridged networks and routed networks include the following:
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Bridges operate on 48-bit Ethernet MAC addresses, not 32- or 128-bit IP addresses MAC addresses are, in essence, globally unique manufacturers serial numbers Unlike IP addresses, MAC addresses convey no information about where a device is located Because there is no geographical hierarchy to MAC addresses, there are no subnetworks Routes are established among the bridges, irrespective of the addresses of the stations These routes are spanning trees Each spanning tree is spanning in the sense that there is a path between every pair of LANs, and it is a tree in the sense that there is only one such path Routes are not computed to stations or to subnetworks Given that there is only one path between any pair of LANs, A and B, and that the path from A to B is identical to the path from B to A, each bridge is able to learn the direction in which each station lies by observing the flow of traffic Unlike routing, no station addresses (or subnetwork addresses) are conveyed by the control protocols The spanning tree protocols are mathematically incapable of forwarding frames in a closed loop, even momentarily Therefore, except at the entrance to or exit from a service boundary, a bridge does not alter the frames it forwards Unlike with routers,
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with bridges, there is no time-to-live (TTL) decremented as a frame is forwarded from bridge to bridge for two reasons: no routing loops are possible, and bridges must be transparent to the stations they serve
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Because of the spanning trees, bridges almost always deliver frames in the same order in which they were transmitted Exceptions cannot occur in the older versions of the Spanning Tree Protocols and are extremely rare in the newer versions, even when a link or bridge is lost or regained in the network Routers attempt to keep packets in order, but make no guarantees Duplicated or out-of-order packets are common when the network topology changes
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Virtual LANs
Since the completion of IEEE Std 8021Q-2005, Virtual LANs (VLANs) have been available as a standard feature of bridges VLANs enable a bridged network to offer up to 4094 separate instances of the MAC service, with each one connecting one or more LANs Since a VLAN bridge cannot transfer a frame from one VLAN to another, and since the MAC address space of each VLAN can be configured to be independent of every other VLAN, VLANs provide the basic service characteristic that customers of Carrier Ethernet service require isolation from other customers A VLAN is perfectly equivalent to an EVC As a consequence, the IEEE Std 8021Q VLANs were offered to customers by service providers as soon as they were standardized A VLAN bridge associates every received data frame with a VLAN, either implicitly by configuring the port on which it was received or explicitly by a VLAN tag, as shown in Figure 133 (Figure 133 calls this a C-VLAN tag, for reasons that will become apparent in the next section) Most stations are not VLAN-aware They transmit and receive untagged Ethernet frames, as shown in Figure 133a Each port of a VLAN bridge is configured with a port VLAN ID (PVID) Untagged frames received by the bridge are assigned to the PVID The bridge may be configured to discard tagged frames or to discard frames not tagged with the PVID, in order to enforce its configuration upon the stations on the LAN Similarly, all frames transmitted by the bridge to non-VLANaware stations are untagged; otherwise, a non-VLAN-aware station would be unable to decode the frame
6 (a) Untagged frame destination_address 6 (b) VLANtagged frame destination_address 6 source_address 6 source_address 2 Type/ length 4 C-VLAN tag 2 Type/ length 46-1498 data 46-1498 data 4 FRC 4 bytes bytes
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