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The 3-bit priority field in the Q-tag provides eight priority levels This is supported by bridges in one standard way, with each vendor free to add additional capabilities So the default priority can be 0, but not the lowest possible priority, the order of importance of frames is, from most important to least important, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 0, 2, 1 In all implementations, each output bridge port has some number of output queues from 1 to 8 The 3-bit priority field is used to decide in which queue to place each frame for subsequent output A bridge may implement any number from 1 to 8 queues, and this may be a configurable parameter Every bridge must offer the capability of draining those queues in strict priority order That is, if any frames are in the queue to which priority 7 frames are assigned, then that queue must be selected for output If that queue is empty, then a frame is transmitted from the queue to which priority 6 frames are assigned, and so on through priorities 5, 4, 3, 0, 2, and finally 1 Which priority values are mapped to which queues if fewer than 8 queues are implemented are defined in IEEE Std 8021Q-2005; however, these assignments can be overridden by management A bridge may provide other queue-draining algorithms as well Practically every vendor that supplies bridges with multiple queues offers the capability of limiting the share of bandwidth available to each priority level, so that a long burst of high-priority traffic does not lock out all lower priority traffic Although the field is called priority field, it is really a class-of-service indicator
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Provider Bridges Q-in-Q
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As soon as providers started using VLANs to carry different customers data, the question arose, What if customers are already using VLANs Several ad hoc solutions were tried by various vendors, and these led eventually to IEEE Std 8021ad-2005 for provider bridges An 8021ad provider bridge is simply an 8021Q VLAN bridge with five modifications:
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A provider bridge uses a slightly different format for its VLAN tag (see Figure 134) A provider bridge blocks a reduced set of destination multicast MAC addresses Of the 16 addresses never forwarded by a non-VLAN bridge, a provider bridge still blocks 11 of them, but forwards 5 of them transparently A provider bridge can implement standardized rate policing
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6 (a) Untagged frame destination_address 6 (b) VLANtagged frame destination_address 6 (c) S-tagged frame destination_address
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6 source_address 6 source_address 6 source_address
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2 Type/ length 4 C-VLAN tag (optional) 2 Type/ length 4 S-VLAN tag
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46-1498 data 46-1498 data 2 Type/ length
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4 bytes FRC 4 bytes FRC 46-1498 data 4 bytes FRC
C-VLAN tag (optional)
(d) Format of S-VLAN tag
0x88A8 (was 0x8100 in C-tag) 16
Priority 3
D E I 1
S-VLAN ID (S-VID) 12 bits
(was CFI in C-tag)
Figure 134 S-tag frame format for 8021ad provider bridges
A provider bridge has VID translation capability at each port A provider bridge has a C-tagged interface that can deal with the customers Q-tags in interesting ways
We will examine these modifications one at a time, in the context of the problems they solve
S-VLAN Tags The existing 8021Q tag is now called a C-tag, or customer tag Looking back at Figure 133c, you can see that tag has an Ethertype (0 8100), a 3-bit priority field, a 1-bit Canonical Format Indicator (CFI) field, and a 12-bit VLAN ID (VID) As mentioned previously, a VID of 0 indicates unknown VID, so the VID is determined by the bridge s configuration, and that VID 4095 (0 FFF) is illegal The priority field has the same meaning as in the C-tag The CFI was defined for use in mixed token ring (IEEE 8025) and Ethernet environments If this bit is set, it indicates that a variable-length routing information field follows the C-tag and precedes the type/length field This field has never found widespread use and thus was available for redefinition in the S-tag The S-tag is shown in Figure 134d It is identical to the C-tag except for the EtherType (0 88A8 instead of 0 8100) and the Drop Eligible Indicator (DEI) bit in place of the CFI bit The DEI bit and its associated implementation inside the bridge provide two levels of delivery priority on top of the eight priority levels provided by the C-tag The DEI is explained in Rate Policing, later in this chapter On the typical provider bridge port, the EtherType used to recognize a VLAN tag is the S-tag value 0 88A8 A frame tagged (by the customers equipment) with a C-tag (EtherType 0 8100) is, therefore, as far as the provider bridge s receiving port is concerned, untagged (The exception to this rule is the C-tagged interface, described next) The received frame is assigned the PVID for that port You may assume, for the moment,
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