Ethernet Backbone Services in Objective-C

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Ethernet Backbone Services
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Ethernet services can be offered at the largest scale using the network depicted in Figure 131 One can imagine a national network of such EVCs, with the routers that provide the IP connectivity using these EVCs, instead of being directly connected This backbone service does not itself provide universal connectivity! Ethernet s flat address space, if nothing else, makes that fundamentally impractical This backbone service is not equivalent to an enterprise network, where a VLAN can spread anywhere in the network at the whim of the users and lead to gross inefficiencies in packet distribution It is more like a national-scale patch panel for interconnecting the routers that provide universal connectivity and for providing EVCs to customers Such a network will be practical only when bridges acquire the capability of offering a large number of point-to-point connections with very fast (on the order of 10s of milliseconds) failure recovery capabilities This capability is still in development
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Given an underlying network of point-to-point services, whether MPLS, SONET, or ATM, you can create very simple E-Line EVCs such as MPLS pseudowires Provider bridges can use both physical Ethernet links and these virtual links equally well for connecting to customers and to each other For example, taking just one of the IEEE 8021ad provider bridge Q-in-Q clouds from Figure 131, up to 4094 E-LAN business EVCs can be created and overlaid upon the MPLS network MPLS can continue to be used for all E-Line EVCs, including Ethernet-over-MPLS services
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A single IEEE 8021ad provider bridge Q-in-Q cloud can offer 4094 business EVCs, enough for many metropolitan networks, without recourse to a MAC-in-MAC backbone As the network grows and the limitations of this Q-in-Q network are approached, it can be split in two, using VID translation When that limitation is exceeded, it can be split into multiple Q-in-Q clouds interconnected by a small MAC-in-MAC backbone, and so on, as hinted at in Figure 131 An IEEE 8021ah MAC-in-MAC backbone network can also connect directly to a customer; an intervening 8021ad Q-in-Q network is not required Using a MAC-inMAC network to connect directly to the UNIs has the obvious advantage of eliminating the Q-in-Q technology from the picture, thus simplifying management and training It scales better than Q-in-Q alone, because more than 4094 EVCs are available However, the MAC address of each I-component in the network (see The I-Component ) is carried across the backbone As the backbone network extends out to the edge, it gets bigger and bigger, and the number of I-components increases Eventually, the network gets larger than the spanning tree protocols can handle, even after being extended by the various techniques given in this chapter As these issues approach, Q-in-Q networks can be added to separate the backbone from the customers, and the network grows toward the complete picture shown in Figure 131
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As shown in Figure 138, Q-in-Q provider bridges are an excellent method for connecting ISP subscribers to their routers In addition, other services besides routers, eg, IP television sources, can be attached to the Up VLANs as well Depending on the scaling capabilities of the bridges and routers, their relative numbers may be different from that shown in the figure Note that this model does not have a place for PPP over Ethernet Ethernet is inherently more reliable than the modem lines for which PPP was developed As long as the network uses Ethernet from the subscriber to the router, and as long as the bridges employed follow the recommendations of IEEE 8021 with regard to handing the frames hardware checksums, PPP adds more complexity and expense than it helps
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