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this is generally easy to ensure When using BFD in conjunction with backup LSPs (see section below on backup LSPs), BFD may detect link or node failures faster than the control plane, but since both BFD and the control plane will take the same action on detecting a failure, this isn t a problem In general, when using BFD, the upper bound on the sending rate is determined by the ability of the LSRs to process BFD control packets The ITU-T has also defined an MPLS OAM mechanism in Y1711 Y1711 is designed to run end-to-end along an MPLS LSP with a 1-sec frequency There has also been work on enhanced OAM mechanisms for MPLS which use elements of Y1711 and of Y1731 Ethernet OAM MPLS supports a range of traffic protection mechanisms Note that there are two stages to traffic protection the fault must first be detected, and then the traffic must be diverted away from the fault
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LDP-signaled LSPs Because LDP-signaled LSPs follow the IGP, shortest path protection of these LSPs depends on IGP reconvergence When a link or node on the shortest path for an LSP fails, the upstream nodes will remove the label mapping for the LSP from their forwarding information base (FIB) until a new shortest path and a matching label for that path is found Failure of a link or node may be detected using physical layer mechanisms (such as loss of light), layer 2 mechanisms (such as PPP keepalives), or using BFD sessions between adjacent LSRs The same detection mechanisms may be used for backup LSPs and for fast reroute (both described below) Backup LSPs One commonly used protection mechanism is to define a backup path for an RSVP-TE signaled LSP, ideally disjoint from the primary path signaled for the LSP The backup path (often known as a stand-by LSP or as a secondary LSP) may either be presignaled (so label state is instantiated along all LSR in the backup path) or simply precomputed (so signalling will be required to re-establish the LSP along the backup path) When a link or node along the LSP fails, the upstream node will generate an RSVP-TE PathErr message toward the ingress LSR The PathErr message needs to traverse all the nodes and links on the path back to the ingress LSR On receipt of the PathErr message, the ingress LSR will switch to the backup path If the backup path is presignaled, this can happen within a few milliseconds of the PathErr message reaching the ingress LSR for an overall protection time in the order of hundreds of milliseconds Fast Reroute SONET/SDH networks achieve protection switching in 50 ms for a ring of up to 1000 km circumference When running MPLS directly over unprotected infrastructure (fibres and wavelengths), there may be a requirement to achieve similar (or better) protection switching at the MPLS layer especially when providing circuitbased services over MPLS MPLS fast reroute addresses this challenge by repairing failures at the point of failure, rather than waiting for the PathErr to propagate to the ingress LSR When signalling an LSP, the ingress LSR requests fast reroute protection and indicates whether link or node protection is required There are two fast reroute
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models: one-to-one backup, where each LSR along the path creates a detour LSP for each protected LSP, and facility bypass, where each LSR along the path creates a single bypass LSP for all protected LSPs through the link or node being protected generally to the next hop LSR for link protection or to the next-next hop LSR for node protection The facility bypass case is, of course, much more scalable than one-to-one backup (since fewer fast reroute LSPs are required), but requires the node that detects the failure (the Point of Local Repair or PLR) to tunnel traffic for all the affected LSPs by swapping the outermost label to the one expected by the next hop or next-next hop (the merge point or MP) and then pushing on a label corresponding to the bypass LSP This is a good example of MPLS label stacking in operation In addition to forwarding traffic over a detour or bypass LSP, the PLR sends a PathErr message upstream to the ingress LSR, which may then choose to create a new protected LSP that avoids the failed resource It is best practice that the new LSP will be created using make before break methodology where traffic is forwarded on the old LSP (and thus over the fast reroute detour or bypass) until the new LSP has been fully established Many fast reroute implementations are capable of protecting 1000s of LSPs within a few milliseconds far surpassing the protection times required in SONET/SDH OAM-based Fault Detection The three protection mechanisms mentioned above are all based on use of the IP/MPLS control plane to propagate fault status An alternative is to use OAM messages in the MPLS forwarding plane (eg, BFD) and to send these along each LSP from the ingress LSR to the egress This would generally be used for LSPs provisioned either with static configuration or an out-of-band control plane such as GMPLS In either case, there will be no in-band control plane to propagate fault status OAM-based fault detection may be used with LSPs provisioned either in a 1:1 mode, where traffic is forwarded over the primary path but is switched to the secondary path when OAM flows detect a break in the primary path, or in a 1+1 mode where traffic is forwarded simultaneously over both paths and the egress LSR selects which traffic to forward, and which to discard, based on receipt of OAM messages The 1+1 mode is capable of sub-50-ms protection (detection time is a function of the frequency with which OAM packets are sent typically the LSP is declared down after three packets are missed) However, the 1:1 mode, requires the egress to inform the ingress of the error condition, and the ingress to switch from the working to the protect path, and thus incurs at least one roundtrip time of additional delay when compared to the 1+1 mode Although traffic protection techniques may be used to route around failed links or nodes in the core of the network, they are generally unable to protect against failure of the ingress or egress LSRs, since customers attach directly to these It is also, of course, desirable that core LSRs be as resilient as possible in order to minimise the protection switching required to bypass failed nodes Modern routers, and LSRs, are designed to have no single point of failure power supplies, switching fabrics, and control cards are duplicated and network interfaces are distributed across multiple independent line cards However, in order to take advantage of this hardware redundancy, additional software support is required With
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