Ethernet Pseudowires in Objective-C

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Ethernet Pseudowires
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There are two different types of Ethernet pseudowire, both defined
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in RFC 4448:
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Tagged mode In this mode, each transported Ethernet frame must contain at least one 8021Q VLAN tag, and both PEs must agree how to process the tag This mode exists because many routers available at the time the original draft-martini was written were unable to add and remove VLAN tags If the VLAN tag is different on the ingress and egress PE, then the tag is rewritten at egress though it may be rewritten at ingress if the egress PE has signaled the optional requested VLAN ID and if the ingress PE is able to rewrite the tag at ingress
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Active PE PE Active pseudowire
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Standby pseudowire Standby PE MPLS network
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Raw mode In this mode, the transported Ethernet frame may contain 8021Q VLAN tags, but if so, the tags will then pass through the egress PE without modification
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In general, the tagged mode is used for VLAN-based services and the raw mode for port-based services, though the raw mode may be used for VLAN-based services if the tag is stripped at ingress and a new tag added at egress An Ethernet pseudowire emulates a point-to-point Ethernet LAN with two endstations It acts as a nonlearning bridge all packets received from the attachment circuit at the ingress PE will be forwarded over the pseudowire and transmitted over the attachment circuit at the egress PE The one exception to this is 8023x PAUSE frames, which are processed locally by each PE (the 8023x protocol works over short time windows, and hence it is better to have the local PE buffer frames, if possible, than to send the PAUSE frames over the network)
Multi-Segment Pseudowires
One limitation of the pseudowire architecture is that PEs must be connected over MPLS LSPs This becomes a problem in three cases:
Very large networks where there are too many PE devices for them to be fully meshed over MPLS LSPs and where RSVP-TE is used for LSP signalling meshes of more than around 100 nodes Networks where different pseudowire signalling and encapsulation techniques are used in different areas of the network (for example, when interoperating between FEC 128 and 129 pseudowire signalling or between RSVP-TE and LDP-signalled LSPs) Pseudowires established between different service providers where the two service providers would rather not allow each other to set up LDP sessions and MPLS LSPs directly from PE to PE
In the segmented pseudowire architecture, a pair of Terminating PEs (T-PEs) may establish a pseudowire to each other via one or more Switching PEs (S-PEs) Each S-PE connects two PW segments and performs the necessary signalling and encapsulation for each one Forwarding along a multi-segment pseudowire (or MS-PW) is the same as forwarding along an LSP, except that the S-PE performs a label swap on the PW label, rather than the tunnel label When a fault is detected in a segment of an MS-PW, LDP is used to propagate that fault information toward the T-PEs (or, in the case of a fault detected at one T-PE, to propagate that information to the remote T-PE) Additional LDP TLVs have been defined to enable the path of MS-PWs to be traced in the control plane, as have extensions to VCCV to enable the path to be traced in the forwarding plane (and to enable fault detection in the forwarding plane) Initial MS-PW implementations rely on static configuration of the S-PEs, though there is work ongoing in the IETF to enable dynamic discovery of switching points (see the section on ongoing developments below)
MPLS
VPLS
Multipoint Transparent LAN Services were offered by many service providers using native Ethernet switching or using Ethernet over ATM before the advent of MPLS Following the adoption of Ethernet over MPLS using pseudowires for point-to-point services, various vendors and service providers commenced standards work on multipoint Ethernet over MPLS These multipoint Ethernet services are an implementation of the MEF E-LAN model Of the three groups that commenced work on multipoint Ethernet services in the IETF, two selected LDP as their signalling protocol and the third selected BGP The two LDP groups merged, and industry consensus emerged for their proposal, which is documented in RFC 4762 Both the LDP and BGP approaches came to be known as Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) There are two applications for VPLS:
Router interconnection In this application, a VPLS instance interconnects multiple customer routers This offers simpler configuration than interconnecting the routers over Ethernet pseudowires (where a separate VLAN pseudowire would need to be configured between each pair of routers) Switch interconnection In this application, a VPLS instance connects multiple customer Ethernet switches and/or hosts Although there are advantages in being able to connect switches directly to the SP s network at Layer 2, this ability brings with it potential scalability issues that will be discussed in the VPLS scaling section below
VPLS Architecture As with pseudowires, a key requirement in the VPLS architecture was to reuse as much as possible from existing IP/MPLS router capabilities Since the LDP VPLS effort lagged the pseudowire effort by two years, those existing capabilities were assumed to include both Ethernet pseudowire forwarding and LDP signalling for pseudowires The basic VPLS architecture consists of a set of PEs, with a full mesh of MPLS LSPs between them (however established) For each VPLS instance, a full mesh of Ethernet pseudowires is provisioned to interconnect the PEs that are members of the VPLS, and then each PE acts as a multipoint learning Ethernet bridge with one port per pseudowire and one per local attachment circuit MAC addresses are learned from the source addresses of frames, whether received from a local attachment circuit or from a pseudowire Frames are forwarded toward known MAC destinations and are replicated by the ingress PE to all pseudowires and local attachment circuits in cases where the destination address is broadcast, multicast, or unknown In order to avoid traffic loops a split horizon rule is applied to the pseudowire ports That is, if a packet is received from a pseudowire, it may never be forwarded to another pseudowire The split horizon rule may only be applied because there is a full mesh of pseudowires between the PEs If that mesh is broken, then the VPLS instance will fail to operate correctly As with point-to-point pseudowire services,
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