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the assumption is made that the MPLS network will ensure full connectivity and will repair any network faults other than PE failure The selection of the multipoint learning bridge as the basis for the VPLS forwarding architecture constrains its implementation to MAC-learning-capable devices except in cases where the MAC addresses are statically configured at the PE (an undesirable overhead) It also centralises VPLS functionality in the PE in contrast to some designs where MAC learning has been separated from MPLS signalling or designs such as ATM LANE where dedicated servers have been used for replication Each PE maintains a separate MAC FIB for each VPLS instance known as a Virtual Switching Instance or VSI where the destination for each MAC address may be either a local attachment circuit or a pseudowire to a remote PE Since there is only one VSI per VPLS instance, and since MAC addresses are unique per VSI, there is typically only one VLAN mapped to each VPLS This is known as qualified learning and is an implementation of Independent VLAN Learning as per 8021Q If multiple VLANs are mapped to one VPLS, then the MAC addresses may not overlap between the VLANs This is known as unqualified learning and is an implementation of Shared VLAN Learning as per 8021Q One key decision made in the LDP VPLS design was to reuse the Ethernet pseudowire encapsulations without modification This was not without controversy The benefit of using the existing encapsulation, of course, is that no changes need to be made to pseudowire forwarding for VPLS However, the disadvantage of using the existing format is that in order for the PE to know from which pseudowire a packet has been received, it must assign a separate PW label to each peer PE (since there is no information in the pseudowire payload to identify the sender and the tunnel label may be stripped by the penultimate hop or may not uniquely identify the sender, for example, when multipoint-to-point LDP is used to establish the tunnels) Typically, raw mode Ethernet pseudowires are used for VPLS rather than tagged mode pseudowires This is because the devices that implement VPLS generally have full Ethernet switching functionality, including the ability to add and remove VLAN tags When a frame arrives on a VPLS attachment circuit, the PE learns the source address of the incoming Ethernet frame and, if needed, adds it to its VPLS FIB The PE then looks up the destination MAC addresses in the FIB If the destination MAC is known in the FIB, then the frame is forwarded to the indicated attachment circuit or pseudowire If the destination MAC is unknown (or is broadcast or multicast), then the PE replicates the packet and sends one copy to each other local attachment circuit and to each pseudowire Service-delimiting VLAN tags will be removed before sending to raw mode pseudowires and may be added when sending to tagged mode pseudowires When a frame arrives from a VPLS pseudowire, the PE strips the PW label and uses it to identify the VPLS instance and the sending PE The PE then learns the source address of the Ethernet frame encapsulated in the pseudowire packet and, if needed, adds it to the VPLS FIB The PE then looks up the destination MAC address in the FIB If the MAC is known and corresponds to a local attachment circuit, then the PE forwards the frame on that attachment circuit If the MAC is unknown (or is broadcast or multicast), then the PE replicates the packet and sends a copy to each
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local attachment circuit VLAN tags may again be added or removed at this stage on a per-attachment circuit basis As already discussed, VPLS signalling is simply an extended version of pseudowire signalling Each VPLS PE establishes an Ethernet pseudowire to each of the other PEs in the VPLS A unique PW label is assigned to each peer PE to enable the local PE to identify the source of packets received over a PW If LDP signalling is used, then the pseudowires are signalled as tagged or raw mode Ethernet pseudowires Specific rules for LDP signalling are defined next
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