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Creation Data Matrix in Objective-C VPLS Signalling

VPLS Signalling
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PWid FEC A single PW ID is assigned for all pseudowires in the VPLS Because there is only one pseudowire between a pair of PEs, each pseudowire may still be uniquely identified by the PW type, PW ID, and the pair of PEs it interconnects Generalized PWid FEC A single AGI is assigned for all pseudowires in the VPLS This acts as a VPN identifier and is a unique name for the VPLS The TAII and SAII are null, as the VPLS terminates on VSI at each PE rather than on an attachment circuit This is rarely, if ever, implemented; however, the Generalized PWid FEC is used in conjunction with VPLS BGP autodiscovery albeit with different FEC encodings (see BGP Autodiscovery next) One additional LDP object is defined for VPLS, the MAC list TLV This may be sent in an LDP address withdrawal message to indicate a list of MAC addresses for a remote PE to unlearn If the list is empty, then this is taken to mean unlearn all MAC addresses except the ones you learned over this pseudowire This may be used to speed up VPLS convergence when there is an attachment circuit failure that results in MAC addresses moving to another attachment circuit (generally because spanning tree or multi-chassis 8023ad is operating in a Layer 2 access network between the MAC addresses and the PE devices) or when a dual-homed MTU-s switches over from one serving N-PE to another (see H-VPLS section below) BGP Autodiscovery One advantage that the BGP VPLS approach had over the LDP approach was the ability to autodiscover VPLS peers through BGP in other words, for a PE device to learn the IP addresses of the other PE devices in the VPLS using BGP rather than the administrator having to statically configure those addresses Various approaches to autodiscovery were investigated for LDP VPLS, including LDP itself (operating in hop by hop mode), OSPF-TE, and RADIUS, but none of these were ultimately adopted More recently, consensus has formed around the use of BGP for autodiscovery while still using LDP for signalling The BGP attributes used for autodiscovery are modelled closely on those used for IP VPNs and are similar to those used in BGP VPLS BGP autodiscovery is used only in conjunction with the FEC 129 A VPLS instance is identified by a BGP Layer 2 VPN Identifier extended community (known hereafter as the VPLS ID) Additionally one or more BGP Route Target (RT) extended communities are used to define connectivity within the VPLS In the usual case where the VPLS has a full mesh of pseudowires, only one RT is required, which will be advertised by all PEs
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One or more 8-byte Route Distinguishers (RDs) are also assigned to each VPLS Each VSI is then identified by a combination of the RD and a globally unique 32-bit PE identifier (which may be an IP address belonging to the PE where that VSI is located or be locally configured) The PE identifier is then encoded into a BGP NLRI (Network Layer Reachability Information, ie, a route advertised by BGP) The RD is used solely to disambiguate BGP NLRIs for different VPLS instances since, in general, all NLRIs advertised by the same PE will have the same IP address portion usually the loopback address of the PE Each PE advertises the NLRI for each of its local VSIs using BGP, including the BGP community identifying the VPLS and one or more RTs and setting the BGP next hop for the NLRI to its local loopback IP address In most provider networks, BGP route reflectors will be used to ensure that advertised NLRIs reach all PEs in the network Each PE learns all BGP NLRIs with VPLS IDs matching locally configured VPLS instances and with RTs matching configured RTs for those VPLS instances For each learned NLRI, the PE then uses FEC 129 signalling to establish a pseudowire to the BGP next-hop for the NLRI (ie, the loopback address of the PE that advertised the NLRI) The AGI is set to the VPLS ID, the SAII to the PE identifier portion of the local NLRI (ie, the NLRI with the RD stripped off), and the TAII to the PE identifier of the learned NLRI This ensures that exactly one pseudowire will be established between any two VSIs with matching VPLS identifiers and RTs Configuring separate values for the VPLS ID, the import/export RTs (ie, the RTs to advertise and the RTs to learn NLRIs from) and the RD are, in most cases, unnecessarily complex Implementations may choose to simplify configuration by automatically creating RDs and RTs based on the configured VPLS ID The goal for VPLS is to provide a scalable Ethernet service However, it is important to remember that there are intrinsic limits to scaling a single Ethernet LAN, and since VPLS emulates an Ethernet LAN, it is impossible to overcome these For example, as hosts are added to an Ethernet LAN, the broadcast and multicast traffic load typically increases due to hosts issuing periodic ARP requests or searching for local network resources (this is protocol dependent, of course) The LANE and MPOA architectures in the 1990s attempted to address Ethernet scaling, but used a very complex design including dedicated servers for forwarding broadcast, multicast, and unknown packets This experiment was not a great success; hence VPLS adopted a simplified architecture where the PE devices themselves replicate those packets One specific issue when connecting Ethernet switches to a VPLS instance is that the VPLS learns all MAC addresses for the switched network This constrains VPLS scaling as the PE devices have to learn all active MAC addresses in the switched network For this reason, many service providers offering VPLS service either limit the number of MAC addresses per attachment circuit, effectively restricting customers to attaching routers, or charge customers for blocks of MAC addresses
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