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VPLS Scaling
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H-VPLS The flat topology of VPLS (where every PE has a pseudowire to every other PE) causes two major scaling challenges:
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The ingress PE has to replicate broadcast, multicast, and unknown frames to all other PEs in the VPLS As the number of PEs in the VPLS grows, the replication overhead also grows Because PEs are generally located at the edges of the network, they may have limited bandwidth available for replicating traffic A full mesh of MPLS LSPs, Ethernet pseudowires, and targeted LDP sessions are required between all the PEs in the VPLS If RSVP-TE LSPs are used, this may severely constrain VPLS scaling (see MPLS Scaling, earlier in the chapter)
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The Hierarchical VPLS (or H-VPLS) model addresses these problems by segmenting the VPLS service into a core of hub devices that are fully meshed, as in a standard VPLS, and a number of spoke devices that are each connected through a single hub The hub devices are generally known as Network-facing PEs (N-PEs), and the spoke devices as User-facing PEs (U-PEs) In RFC 4762, the N-PEs are referred to as PE-rs devices, since they must be PE devices that are capable of routing and switching The U-PEs are known as MTU-s devices since they are often located at Multi-Tenant Units and are capable of switching, but do not need to be capable of routing as they have only a single path into the network The H-VPLS model also enables devices that are unable to learn MAC addresses to participate in VPLS as U-PEs (known, in this case, as PE-r devices, as they are capable of routing but not of switching) A PE-r has one pseudowire to its serving N-PE for each attachment circuit (since it is unable to bridge between those attachment circuits) Each pseudowire is signalled with a unique PW ID (in the FEC 128 case), to enable the N-PE to distinguish between them The split horizon rule is now modified so that an N-PE applies split horizon only on the pseudowires to other N-PEs and not on pseudowires to U-PEs When a U-PE sends a broadcast, multicast, or unknown frame, it sends a single copy to its serving N-PE Unless the N-PE knows the destination MAC address, it will flood the frame on all pseudowires to other N-PEs or served U-PEs and to any local attachment circuits When a remote N-PE receives the frame, it will flood it (unless it knows the destination MAC address) on all pesudowires to served U-PEs and on any local attachment circuits Thus, the replication load is distributed across the ingress and egress N-PEs One potential issue in the H-VPLS model is that if an N-PE fails, then its served U-PEs will be isolated from the rest of the network This is addressed by the ability to configure dual-homed U-PEs that have pseudowires to two different N-PEs Only one pseudowire is active at a time, and if it fails, the U-PE switches over to the other pseudowire If the pseudowire has failed because the N-PE has failed, then traffic from other N-PEs will immediately start flowing to the backup N-PE (since those N-PEs will remove FIB
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entries corresponding to the failed N-PE) If, however, the pseudowire has failed because the LSP from the U-PE to the primary N-PE has failed, then other N-PE devices may still attempt to send traffic through the primary N-PE as they are unaware of the LSP failure (It may be desirable to let the failure happen if the physical path from the U-PE to the primary N-PE fails, to avoid tromboning traffic through the core of the network to the primary N-PE) To prevent traffic from being blackholed until MAC timers age out, the U-PE may send an LDP address withdraw message, containing an empty MAC list TLV, to the (now active) backup N-PE, which will then send a similar message to all other N-PEs in the VPLS, resulting in them removing all FIB entries for the VPLS except those destined for the backup N-PE
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