Network Convergence in Objective-C

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Network Convergence
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Many network technologies, from ISDN to ATM, have promised to offer convergence of multiple voice and data services over one common infrastructure, but without much success However, carriers are now increasingly standardising on Ethernet and on IP for future services Ethernet over MPLS offers a way to provide Ethernet services over an IP core Some carriers are now deploying multi-service PE devices that enable them to offer Ethernet, IP, and legacy services (eg, ATM, frame relay, and TDM) over the same network using EoMPLS for Ethernet services, IP VPNs for IP services, and pseudowires for legacy services
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In this section we will look at ideal deployment scenarios for Ethernet over MPLS, describing cases where the technology may be the optimal choice of the different options available (many of which are described in other chapters of this book)
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Inter-regional Support of Ethernet Services over Any L2 Transport
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EoMPLS enables Ethernet to be transported over any Layer 2 transport and over existing IP/MPLS wide area networks, as discussed previously Where service providers want to offer inter-regional Ethernet services with statistical gain, EoMPLS is the natural choice Statistical gain is important when offering Ethernet services as most Ethernet links are very lightly loaded and is even more important in the inter-regional case where transport costs are relatively high Where service providers have islands of Layer 2 Ethernet in major metropolitan areas Ethernet over MPLS may be used to interconnect those islands, enabling the provider to traffic engineer the wide area links and to ensure fast protection against failures of those links The alternative would be to use Ethernet over SONET/SDH to interconnect the islands Ethernet over SONET/ SDH could be provisioned with a single GFP-encapsulated VCAT group per pair of islands, but this, in fact, will tend to cause increased latency and jitter and lower network utilisation as only a few services would be mapped onto each VCAT group and as each VCAT group would have a much lower speed than the overall bandwidth demand per island (lower speed increases serialisation delay as packets are clocked out onto the link and also increases jitter for any given level of link loading) Ethernet over SONET/SDH could alternatively be provisioned with much larger VCAT groups connecting adjacent islands, but in this case, spanning tree protection would have to be used over the wide area, leading to some links being unused unless multiple spanning trees were constructed, for example, one spanning tree per pair of islands
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Ethernet Access to MPLS-based Metro Core Network
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Ethernet is rapidly becoming the standard interface for handoff from service providers to customers Where all services are delivered over Ethernet interfaces, the cheapest access technology is generally to deploy Ethernet switches But in order to scale such a deployment, carriers need to deploy a carrier-class technology into the metro core Because most service providers wish to offer IP services as well as Ethernet services, they often deploy IP/MPLS routers into the metro edge and core and use them to interconnect the access layer of Ethernet switches, offering both Layer 2 and Layer 3 services In very large metros, carriers may deploy as many as four layers of equipment (see Figure 146):
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MPLS Core Routers provide connectivity between PE devices Large MPLS Edge Routers provide the N-PE layer for L2 VPNs and the PE layer for L3 VPNs
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MPLS
Ethernet switch layer
U-PE layer
N-PE layer
Core layer
Large MPLS metro network
Smaller MPLS-enabled nodes provide the U-PE layer for L2 VPNs and a pseudowire access layer toward the L3 VPN PEs (this requires pseudowire into VRF capability at the L3 VPN PEs) Layer 2 Ethernet switches provide access to the MPLS network, acting as 8021ad Provider Bridges
Metro Core for Ethernet over Multiple Access Networks
Many service providers use a mixture of on-net and off-net facilities to reach enterprise customers However, these providers still face the market demand to deliver IP and Ethernet services and to use Ethernet as the standard interface for handoff to their customers Many such providers are moving to a model where one or two EoMPLS PE devices are deployed into each city (or several into a large city) and are connected to each other over MPLS and to their service platforms (such as IP-VPN PE devices and public Internet routers) over Ethernet NNIs (often provisioned today using VLANs over gigabit Ethernet ports) Customers connect to provider-owned network demarcation devices that have Ethernet ports toward the customer and Ethernet, Ethernet over SONET/SDH, Ethernet over TDM, or Ethernet over DSL interfaces toward the network Existing aggregation networks belonging to the service provider or to third party carriers (often regional or national incumbents) and comprised of devices such as Ethernet switches, SONET/SDH MSPPs and DXCs, PDH muxes, and DSLAMs are used to aggregate the customer traffic The connection from the aggregation network to the MPLS PE may be an Ethernet UNI (ie, one physical connection per customer), an Ethernet NNI (ie, multiple customers delivered on one physical Ethernet connection), or may be in the native format of the aggregation network (eg, channelised SONET/ SDH with a GFP-encapsulated VCAT group per customer) In this case, the value of MPLS is that it enables the service provider to offer Layer 2 Ethernet services between
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