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cities (or within large cities) and also to offer Layer 3 services from Ethernet concentration nodes that aren t connected directly to a local Layer 3 service PE
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Multiple Services on One Network (Not Just Ethernet)
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As discussed in the section on network convergence, MPLS is the natural technology choice for offering a range of Layer 1, Layer 2, and Layer 3 services over a common network Again, the expectation is generally that over time most services will be Ethernetor IP-based and that most customers will be connected to the service provider over an Ethernet interface, yet carriers will continue to offer legacy Layer 1 and Layer 2 services for many years, and in many cases will wish to retire the platforms currently deployed to offer such services (often those platforms have already reached their end of life) and migrate those services onto the next-generation networks currently being deployed to offer IP and Ethernet services Since MPLS pseudowires are the technology of choice for legacy service migration and since MPLS-based IP VPNs are the technology of choice for IP services, a carrier wishing to offer all services over a common platform is most likely to select EoMPLS for Ethernet services
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Inter-provider Handoffs Are Required
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Ultimately, no service provider is able to offer services in every location, and so providers look to extend their footprint by partnering with others For providers of Ethernet services, the simplest way to interconnect with other networks is the back-to-back UNI method typically just interconnecting a pair of GigE ports between providers and provisioning a new VLAN for each inter-provider service instance This is analogous to the inter-provider IP-VPN option A, as defined in RFC 4364, and although simple and secure, the two providers must agree on VLANs at the inter-connect and provision a new VLAN for each new service This method also presents a single point of failure at the interconnect, though this can be alleviated somewhat by using pairs of GigE ports running 8023ad link bundling over redundant fibre paths The MEF is working on a standardised Ethernet NNI to address the lack of standards support for inter-provider Ethernet services, but in the interim many providers are looking to use MPLS-derived mechanisms for interconnects MS-PWs may be used, with the border routers between two providers networks both acting as S-PEs The pseudowire segment between the two border routers may be provisioned either statically or using LDP BGP may be used by the border routers to discover which pseudowires to signal across the interconnect See Figure 147 and the section below on dynamic multisegment pseudowires for more discussion on the use of BGP for establishing MS-PWs
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Provider A network
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Provider B network
Figure 147 Inter-provider Ethernet service using multi-segment pseudowire
MPLS
For VPLS, the same mechanisms used for BGP autodiscovery may be extended to enable service to be offered across two providers networks in an analogous fashion to the interprovider IP-VPN option B defined in RFC4364 The benefits of using BGP, or any other routing protocol, for dynamic discovery of the pseudowires to signal at the interconnect are twofold:
It reduces the manual configuration required per service It facilitates architectures with multiple redundant interconnects
Large Numbers of Carrier-class Services Need to be Supported
Ethernet over MPLS enables providers to offer an immense number of service instances over one common network and to provide carrier-class Service-Level Agreements (SLAs) for those services The reason an immense number of services may be offered is because EoMPLS layers services onto MPLS LSPs, isolating the core of the network from any knowledge of the services being carried over the network Carrier-class SLAs may be offered because EoMPLS typically runs on carrier-class nodes, supporting the node and traffic protection mechanisms discussed in MPLS Protection, and supporting the QoS mechanisms discussed in MPLS QoS The ability of MPLS to offer differentiated QoS enables service providers to offer their customers a range of tiered SLAs
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