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Figure 52 64/65-octet encoding examples
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the data field may contain a special codeword that provides additional information on the contents of the block (whether it s the start of frame, end of frame, etc) Additionally, 64/65-octet encapsulation includes measures to improve the false packet acceptance results of traditional DSL encoding DSL physical layers generally operate in modes that yield a bit-error rate of 10-7 Traditionally, Ethernet technologies (and the IP layers above them) have been built upon an architecture where false packet acceptance cannot statistically occur To achieve FPA performance acceptable for Ethernet and IP delivery, the 64/65-octet layer appends every frame (or fragment) with a CRC in addition to the Ethernet FCS The combination of these two error-checking codes practically eliminates the possibility of FPA, thus maintaining the historically high reliability of Ethernet These changes result in a more efficient and more reliable access network For example, carrying Ethernet over ATM results in 20 50 percent overhead, and carrying Ethernet natively via Mid-Band Ethernet results in less than 5 percent overhead This allows carriers to squeeze more bandwidth (and more revenue) out of their existing infrastructure
Multipair Aggregation
The loop aggregation techniques of IEE 8023ah are simple and powerful Frames are passed to the loop aggregation layer from the higher layer, where they are fragmented and distributed across the loops within the aggregate When transmitted across the individual loops, a fragmentation header is prepended (see Figure 53), which includes a sequence number and frame markers This header is used by the receiver to resequence the fragments and to reassemble them into complete frames To allow vendor differentiation, the algorithm for partitioning the frames over the loops is not specified However, the partitioning algorithm must obey certain rules in that fragments must obey size constraints and that loops in an aggregate must obey rate and differential delay constraints As long as the loop aggregation algorithms obey these constraints and restrictions, any fragmentation algorithm can be handled by the reassembly process, yielding a very flexible and interoperable solution
Frame
Loop aggregation fragmentation FH Frag-1 FH Frag-1 FH Frag-1
FH = fragment header SOP EOP SeqNum
Loop aggregation reassembly
SOP = start of packet flag EOP = end of packet flag SeqNum = sequence number
Frame
Multipair aggregation in IEEE 8023ah
5
Not Link Aggregation Although they may look similar, loop aggregation as defined in 8023ah is very different than link aggregation as defined in 8023ad Loop aggregation fragments individual frames into variable-sized segments in order to minimize latency and maximize utilization of disparate speed links Link aggregation load-balances frames over equal speed links in order to increase aggregate throughput One very key difference is that the loops in loop aggregation (8023ah) can be running at very different speeds, which is not possible with 8023ad link aggregation Likewise, the ability to fragment large frames into smaller pieces is very important when trying to minimize latency A 1500-byte Ethernet frame takes 12ms to transmit when lines are running at 1 Mbps Breaking this frame up into N equal size fragments decreases transmit latency for this frame by a factor of N
In addition to the efficiency and performance benefits of 8023ah, loop aggregation has the added benefit that it s automatic and resilient Pairs can come and go, and the Ethernet interface remains operational only the available bandwidth is affected New pairs can be wired up and automatically joined to the aggregate group with no additional configuration, realizing the plug-and-play potential of Ethernet This makes IEEE 8023ah the most suitable technology for business and residential services today, where unreliable, best effort delivery is simply not enough
Automatic Resiliency
Drivers for This Solution
The growth of Mid-Band Ethernet is driven by multiple converging needs: the universal adoption of the Internet Protocol (IP), the economics of Ethernet, and the cost and complexity of real-world fiber deployments
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