The DOCSIS Physical Layer in Objective-C

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The DOCSIS Physical Layer
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Because the architecture of the cable system enforces a one-tomany topology for downstream transmissions and a many-to-one topology for upstream transmissions, the DOCSIS MAC layer protocol s primary task is to coordinate the upstream transmissions from all of the attached CMs The basic mechanism by which this is achieved is via a reservation-based, time-division multiple access control system When an Ethernet frame arrives at the 10/100/1000Base-T or USB port on a CM, the CM determines the size of the packet and then sends a request message to the CMTS to reserve an appropriately sized timeslot in which to send the packet The request message itself is sent in contention using a slotted Aloha protocol with binary exponential backoff in the event of a collision The CMTS prioritizes the request and then grants
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The DOCSIS MAC Layer
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the CM the requested timeslot The CMTS communicates the scheduling of upstream transmissions by periodically broadcasting a map message, which identifies contention request timeslots as well as timeslots that are granted to a particular CM Since the cabling distance, and hence propagation delay, between the CMTS and each individual CM may vary widely, all CMs are synchronized to a common time base using a periodic ranging mechanism When triggered by an upstream ranging timeslot granted to it by the CMTS, the CM sends a ranging request message The CMTS then calculates and sends a ranging response message that includes a timing adjustment as well as transmit power and frequency adjustments, if necessary This ensures that each CM s transmissions stay within the timeslots allocated to it by the CMTS The DOCSIS 11 specifications and beyond include MAC layer extensions to support quality of service (QoS) For example, certain packet streams (service flows) can be given low latency by establishing an upstream scheduling type for the flow By default, upstream service flows are of the best-effort scheduling type and so gain access to the upstream channel by the mechanism described previously The alternative upstream scheduling types include a real-time polling service and an unsolicited grant service Real-time polling service achieves lower latency for constant packet-rate but variable bit-rate streams (eg, video telephony) by eliminating the contention request and backoff mechanism The CM is instead given periodic, dedicated (ie, contention-free) request opportunities in which to request timeslots to transmit its packets Unsolicited grant service, on the other hand, achieves low latency and jitter for constant bit-rate streams (eg, voice telephony) by eliminating the request mechanism entirely The CM is given periodic, fixed-size timeslots (grants) in which to transmit its packets In addition to these tools that address latency requirements for certain upstream traffic types, the DOCSIS 11 specification and beyond provide support for data rate guarantees, bounds on data rates via a token-bucket rate-limiting algorithm, as well as priority levels for both downstream and upstream traffic QoS capabilities can be managed dynamically in order to meet the particular needs of the traffic being actively transported, and multiple service flows with disparate QoS requirements can be supported simultaneously using a sophisticated packet classification mechanism
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CMs are provisioned and allowed service by the operator through the use of a binary configuration file The configuration file contains settings to control the forwarding of data through the CM in accordance with the user s service-level agreement For example, the configuration file defines rate limits and rate guarantees for data forwarding in both the upstream and downstream directions; the configuration file can also be used to limit the number of customer devices attached to the CM or to block traffic to or from certain IP addresses or traffic that uses certain protocols When a particular CM comes online, it requests an IP address from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) (RFC-2131) [3] server in the operator s data network The response from the DHCP server includes information on the filename and server IP address for the configuration file that has been assigned to that particular CM
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