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OAM is typically optionally implemented in the data-link layer between the MAC and LLC sublayers, and because it was termed optional in the IEEE 8023ah standard, system vendors can use either proprietary or existing management solutions, depending on the required functions and supported extensions The EFM OAM can be implemented in hardware (especially in stations where performance is the main issue, eg, in OLTs) or in software (to provide extended flexibility and remote configuration, eg, in ONUs) This means that only a certain group of network stations may support OAM features (eg, ONUs providing service to premium customers) The OAM functionality can be implemented on any full-duplex point-to-point (P2P) link or emulated P2P link (EPON case), and the OAM protocol can be used simultaneously with the 8023x MAC flow control PAUSE function, although when doing so, PAUSE inhibits all traffic, including the OAM protocol data units (OAMPDUs) The EPON OAM protocol is, therefore, a straightforward implementation of the generic Ethernet OAM protocol, with minor changes in the MIB targeting adjustment to the EPON environment conditions The EPON MIB module is an extension for the generic Ethernet MIB, IF-MIB, and MAU-MIB devices, thus consisting of three distinct MIB groups:
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MPCP MIBs Containing objects used for configuration and status verification for the IEEE 8023ah-compliant MPCP protocol Additionally, the statistic table, termed dot3MpcpStatTable contains all metrics relevant to the operation of the multipoint access mechanism
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OMPEmulation MIB Containing objects required for configuration and status verification for all P2P emulation mechanisms present in EPONs, which are achieved by tagging each data frame traversing the EPON structure with the network unique Logical Link IDentifier (LLID) number, identifying the source/target entity in a unanimous manner There are two distinct tables present, namely dot3OmpEmulationTable containing objects required for configuration and status polling and dot3OmpEmulatio nStatTable storing relevant mechanism statistics MAU MlBs Containing objects required for configuration and status verification for EPON MAU level interfaces A MAU MIB is generally considered an extension of the generic Ethernet MAU MIB It comprises a dot3EponMauTable, hosting the managed parameters of the EPON physical layer, and a dot3EponMauType type definition
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Additionally, there is a MIB module specific for EPON devices which contains objects that can be used to manage any Ethernet device, such as a bridge, with one or more EPON OLT interfaces The MIB eponDeviceRemoteMACAddressLLIDTable contains a table mapping ONU MAC addresses to LLIDs addresses for the given EPON instance, thus storing the physical ONU port addresses not the addresses of the end stations that may be attached to the subscriber ports of the device The aforementioned ONU addresses are learned from incoming MultiPoint Control Protocol(MPCP) messages and are updated continuously during standard operation In an EPON-based bridge, a similar table must be present to store the associations between the MAC addresses of the end stations attached to the ONUs and the LLIDs, which need to be used to reach the particular Ethernet interfaces A normal bridge learns associations between MAC addresses of the particular interfaces and given ports, though here the generic bridge ports are replaced by the LLID entities The implementation details on this particular table are left open, allowing for greater flexibility and the addition of proprietary solutions
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In recent years, we have witnessed groundbreaking developments in the area of optical networking, especially with the emergence of such advanced transmission technologies as dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM), inline optical amplification in the form of erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), optical path routing (wavelength cross-connecting), wavelength add-drop multiplexers (WADM), high-speed switching, and so on all of which were quickly adopted in core networks and WANs, boosting the transmission capacity of the telecommunications backbone and increasing its reliability Simultaneously, LANs made a huge step forward by upgrading the existing infrastructure from 10 Mbps Ethernet lines to typically 100 Mbps or even 1 Gbps solutions, courtesy of a new Gigabit Ethernet standard recently adopted by the IEEE [2] An increasing number of households are in possession of more than one personal computer, typically internetworked using home area networks (HANs) based on LAN solutions, with low-cost Ethernet switches and hubs being the devices of choice for
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such limited connectivity systems New houses are commonly equipped with standard category 5/5+ cabling to facilitate deployment and interconnection of personal devices Such HANs do represent a significant data source nowadays, mainly due to the increasing number of digital online services, such as online gaming, Video On Demand (VoD), and information searching, producing a steadily growing data flow that needs to be delivered to the WAN aggregation plane This transformation of backbone, enterprise, and home networks, coupled with the tremendous (virtually exponential) growth of Internet traffic volume observed for the last couple of years (see eg, wwwieee802org/3/hssg/public/mar07/bach_01_0307pdf, wwwieee802org/3/hssg/public/jan07/lee_01_0107pdf, or wwwieee802org/3/hssg/ public/sep06/steenman_01_0906pdf), only emphasizes the aggravating gap between the aforementioned network layers, resulting from the lack of well-developed access networks, where bandwidth is currently scarce, expensive, and commonly hard to obtain With little investment and almost no plans for development, existing copper-based systems, including ISDN and DSL lines, as well as hybrid (mixed copper and fiber) solutions, deployed mainly by CATV companies, all exhibit signs of bandwidth shortage right now, with no advanced digital service available yet This situation has occurred due to asymmetric channel characteristics as well as significant reach limitations, especially noticeable in the case of DSL technology, where deployment price grows almost exponentially as distance increases from the central office of the ISP The most widely deployed broadband solutions today are digital subscriber line (DSL) and cable modem (CM) networks While they certainly represent a significant step forward from what used to be 56 kbps dial-up connections, they are still unable to provide sufficient bandwidth for such emerging digital services as VoD, online gaming, or multichannel video conferencing DSL technology uses the same copper twisted-pair cable as telephone lines and requires a special DSL modem located at the customer premises, as well as a digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM) terminating the given subscriber line in the CO of the ISP DSL technology is mainly all about efficient spectrum division, providing a means of subdividing the available line spectrum into a number of transmission windows (one of which, located in the lower frequency region, is reserved for the standard telephone channel being used by the plain-old telephone service (POTS) equipment) The transmission windows are used to deliver data services to and from a subscriber modem Several flavors of DSL lines have been developed over the years, such as basic digital subscriber line (bDSL), targeting backward compatibility with integrated services data network (ISDN) equipment; high-speed digital subscriber line (HDSL), compatible with the T1 rate of 1544 Mbps; asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), which is currently the most widely deployed flavor of DSL with short range transmissions reaching 16 Mbps in the downstream direction (toward the subscriber); and finally very high-speed digital subscriber line (VDSL), boasting 24 Mbps in the downstream direction, though with very short reach Recent years brought also the development of VDSL2/2+ (specified in the framework of ITU G9932), which permits the transmission of asymmetric and symmetric (Full-Duplex) aggregate data rates up to 200 Mbit/s on twisted pairs using a bandwidth up to 30 MHz
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