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Providing that wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology reaches a significant level of maturity in the near future (ie, achieves cost marks suitable for massmarket FTTH applications), the number of individual wavelength channels in a single EPON could be increased, adding a separate WDM overlay on top of existing burst mode operated systems In this scheme, some of the already deployed and active ONUs would be assigned, in a static manner, to a distinct wavelength domain for both upstream and downstream transmission lanes While the effective data rate on each wavelength would remain the same, there would simply be fewer ONUs to share that raw bandwidth capacity, increasing the bandwidth available per subscriber The extreme example of this approach would be a WDM PON system wherein each subscriber is allocated unique wavelengths for upstream and downstream transmission It is still not clear when WDM components will be available at the appropriate prices to make this solution commercially viable The price of the tuneable laser sources applicable for the ONUs is continuously dropping, allowing for development of colourless subscriber units, though the necessary control electronics, wavelength tracking systems and the need to employ the DWDM channel allocation to assure sufficient number of subscribers are still cost-prohibitive The complexity of the OLT unit connected with the need for a dedicated receiver per subscriber port as well as highly complicated wavelength allocation plan and the requirement for a special wavelength allocation protocol make the management of WDM PON a real nightmare from the logistic point of view DWDM systems, which would be needed for the -per customer systems just described, operate over a narrow band of frequencies known as the C- and L-bands (between 1530 and 1620 nm) The wavelengths must be tightly bunched together, fitting from 32 to 128 channels in the C- and L-bands Coarse WDM (CWDM), in contrast, operates on a much wider range of wavelengths (1270 1610 nm), with a maximum of 18 channels separated by 20 nm intervals Figure 76 shows a mapping of the
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30 25 Fiber Attenuation (dB/km) 20 15 10 05
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ITU-TG652 Fiber O-Band 1260 1360 E-Band 1360 1460 S-Band 1460 1530 C-Band
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Figure 76 ITU-T G6942 CWDM wavelength grid
ITU-T G6942 CWDM wavelength grid against a standard ITU-T G652 fiber attenuation curve The wider spacing of the CWDM bands means that much more economical components can be used in these systems, and currently, there is active interest in adding CWDM to EPON systems to enhance their capacity Figure 77 presents three possible deployment scenarios for the tree-and-branch topology WDM PON systems Obviously, other topologies are possible, though it has been proven already that this particular architecture minimizes both fiber deployment as well as splitter count in the PON network [11, 14-17] Figure 77a depicts a tree-and-branch topology with cascaded AWG and PSC elements, where initial wavelength routing is performed in the AWG, multiplexing a number of incoming downstream channels, 1 n, into n output ports Each AWG output port is connected further on with a PSC performing the power-splitting operation for a single wavelength channel selected previously by the AWG component This way, all ONUs connected to a given PSC module receive the same downstream channel, 3, thus making this scenario a simple CWDM overlay over the standard EPON structure, where ONUs are unaware of any existing multiple wavelength structure in the network Such an approach has one huge advantage namely a high degree of backward compatibility with existing PON equipment (no dynamic wavelength tuneability is required for ONUs operating at predefined downstream and upstream channels) Unfortunately, there are more drawbacks to such a system because static wavelength assignment through AWG routing operations causes stock problems for the network operator; ONUs cannot be switched between different domains without retuning the receiver filters and replacing the laser transmitter module Additionally, the network operator must keep track of the wavelength domain ONU assignment by hand, since the system is unaware of this fact There are also concerns with the dynamic allocation of resources because in this case, it is virtually impossible to effect this particular function A particular PSC receives only a single wavelength and splits it into a number of output ports All connected ONUs are, therefore, forced to operate at this wavelength
Passive Optical Networks (PONs)
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