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Currently practical optical transmission systems operate at 10 Gbits/s , However optical transmission at 40 Gbits/s is expected to become com, mercially available in the near future For data rates of up to 25 Gbits/s,
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a Perfect pulses originated at laser
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Figure 212 The combined effect of attenuation, scattering, and chromatic dispersion on the flow of light pulses down a fiber
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b Effect of attenuation
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c Effect of scattering and chromatic dispersion and attenuation
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most optical transmission systems use lasers that are switched on and off , representing digital 1s and 0s At higher data rates a modulation containing a crystal lithium niobate waveguide is commonly used with a laser The laser beam is fired into the modulator which splits the beam into , two parallel beams, each with half the amplitude of the original One of the beams passes through a slice of lithium niobate, which, when a voltage is applied to the crystal, refracts the light and causes the beam to become out fo phase with the other beam When the beams are joined together at the other end of the modulator they cancel each other out, , resulting in an OFF condition or 0 data bit When the voltage is removed from the lithium niobate, the beams remain in phase with each other and combine to produce a beam with the same amplitude as in the original beam This signifies a 1 data bit Because it is possible to apply or remove a voltage to or from a lithium niobate crystal faster than switching a laser on and off this type of modulator offers the potential to break , the present speed barrier for transmitting over optical fiber Distance also limits the speed of transmission over an optical fiber Because transmission distance is a function of the optical transmitter and type of optical fiber, we will postpone a discussion of the constraints associated with transmission distance to s 3 and 4
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CHAPTER
Understanding Optical Fiber
Copyright 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click Here for Terms of Use
Three
The goal of this chapter is to explain the production, operation, and utilization of optical fiber In so doing we will describe how light travels down an optical fiber discuss the different types of fiber available for , different applications, and examine several parameters that govern the ability to transmit information in the form of light efficiently and effectively through an optical fiber
Evolution
Although we associate the transmission of light within an optical fiber as a modern element of science, the concepts behind the technology date to the nineteenth century During the mid-1800s the physicist John Tyndall showed that light could be bent around a corner while it traveled through a stream of pouring water During 1880, Alexander Graham Bell, who we associate primarily with the invention of the telephone, demonstrated the use of a membrane to modulate an optical signal in response to varying sound Bell s photophone represented a free-space transmission system and not a guided optical system; however , it paved the way for further effort Although AT&T obtained a patent on guided optical communications over glass in 1934, at that time the glass manufacturing process did not provide the capability needed to produce fiber-optic cable with an attenuation level low enough to make guided optical communications a reality Instead, approximately 30 more years passed until researchers were able to better understand how light attenuates in glass and how optical fiber should be manufactured to provide a practical method for supporting optical communications The efforts of various researchers resulted in a reduction in the attenuation of glass-fiber optic cable from over 1000 dB/km to under 20 dB/km In 1970, Corning Glass Works patented its fabrication process, which made it possible to manufacture fiber with a loss of 20 dB/km That level of loss was originally considered as a Rosetta stone for optical communications This is because a loss of 20 dB/km is equivalent to receiving 1 percent of the original light power after traveling a distance of 1 km Today you can obtain optical fiber whose attenuation can range to below 05 dB/km, illustrating the progress that has occurred in the manufacture of optical fiber since the late 1960s or the early 1970s Of course, as you might expect, the attenua-
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