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Figure 312 Dispersion in an optical fiber results in the spreading of pulses in the time domain
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amount of attenuation It is extremely important to design an optical transmission system to obtain the lowest possible attenuation This is because a low level of attenuation permits optical amplifiers to be spaced father apart, in effect reducing the cost of the transmission system The first generation of optical transmission systems operated in the 800- to 900-nm range As indicated in the shaded area in the left portion of Figure 310c, this is equivalent to the first optical window and represents the use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) Because the lowest level of attenuation occurs at approximately 850 nm in this window, as you might expect, early optical systems used LEDs operating primarily at that wavelength The second generation of optical fiber systems use lasers operating in the 1200- to 1300-nm range As indicated in the shaded area in the middle of Figure 310c, this represents the second optical window in which , attenuation is significantly lower than in the first window Although most currently installed optical transmission systems operate within the second optical window this is rapidly changing A third , window which is shown in the shaded area in the lower right of Figure , 310c to extend from 1500 to 1600 nm, has a very low level of attenuation and is currently the preferred operating area for optical fiber installed since 1990 or so There are two bands within the range of wavelengths noted above The C-band range is 1530 to 1570 nm, while the L-band range is 1570 to 1610 nm OPTICAL WINDOW UTILIZATION The use of the first optical window is for short-wavelength multimode systems In comparison, the second optical window is used for long wavelength multimode or singlemode transmission systems Single-mode fiber is used primarily for long-distance carrier systems The ITU G652 specification for optical fiber is optimized for a 1310 nm
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Understanding Optical Fiber
wavelength and is referred to as non-dispersion-shifted fiber (NDSF) A second ITU specification, G653, refers to dispersion-shifted fiber (DSF) and was designed for minimal dispersion in the C band As wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems emerged, a defined level of chromatic dispersion was recognized to have a positive effect on the ability to place multiple light signals on a common fiber This resulted in the promulgation of the ITU G655 standard for non-zero-dispersion-shifted fiber (NZDSF) NZDSF fibers designed for long-distance carrier systems have a moderate amount of dispersion in the C and the L bands Today the C and L bands are being used for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) In 4 we will discuss optical multiplexing as well as the use of optical amplifiers that make this technique of placing multiple signals on a fiber economically possible
Three types of material can be used to manufacture fiber-optic cable: glass, plastic, and plastic-clad silica (PCS) The use of each type of material results in differences in the cost of the cable as well as the amount of attenuation that light pulses experience as they flow down the cable Concerning the latter, attenuation results primarily from two physical phenomena: absorption and scattering As light in the form of photons flows along the core of a fiber, the photons interact with molecules that make up the fiber core This interaction results in a loss of signal energy by the photons, whose end effect is the absorption of light A second effect resulting from the flow of light in a fiber is scattering As noted earlier in this chapter the effect of scattering is to redirect , a portion of light out of the core into the cladding, causing other rays to bounce from core to cladding to core as they propagate along the fiber Because the end result is a stretched pulse, the effect of scattering or modal dispersion is to attenuate the pulse If we compare and contrast the three types of material used for optical fibers, we can categorize them with respect to their attenuation, cost, and utilization Table 31 summarizes these properties We will now describe and discuss these relationships by covering each type of fiber