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Figure 65 Two-dimensional depiction of the STS1 frame
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Section Overhead
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Line Gross Payload Area Overhead
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byte order of transmission row 1, columns 1 through 90, row 2, columns 1 through 90,
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becomes 783 bytes/frame 8000 frames/s 8 bits/byte, or 50112 Mbits/s As we will note below there are nine path overhead bytes that , float within the gross payload area Thus, the net payload is 774 bytes/frame 8000 frames/s 8 bits/byte or 49536 Mbits/s This net payload capacity is sufficient to transport a T3 or even an E3 payload However to do so SONET uses special overhead bytes, referred , to as payload pointers, which indicate where the payload begins within the SONET frame This use of pointers permits different types of payloads to literally float within the frame to an applicable position Through the use of pointers individual DS1 frames can be synchronized, permitting SONET frames to be synchronized and providing for the S in the acronym SONET
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OVERHEAD As indicated in Fig 65, the first three columns of each STS-1 frame are used for section layer and line layer overhead The remaining 87 bytes in each row represent a gross payload of 783 bytes per STS-1 frame PAYLOAD The payload area of an STS-1 frame consists of 783 bytes Although not shown in Fig 65, the payload area is actually subdivided The major portion of the payload area is used for the actual payload, while 9 bytes within the general payload area are used for path overhead Thus, the net payload area available per STS-1 frame is actually 774 bytes The gross payload area is organized into a floating position within the STS-1 frame Since the payload area floats, a mechanism is necessary to denote the actual position of the payload within the frame This mechanism is provided by the use of two line overhead bytes: H1 and H2 In SONET terminology the total 783 bytes in the gross payload area, including 774 bytes of payload data and 9 bytes of path overhead data, is referred to as a synchronous payload envelope (SPE) The floating of the SPE provides a mechanism for overcoming differences in synchronization between different T- and E-carrier transmission facilities An example of a synchronous payload envelope floating within an STS-1 frame is shown in Fig 66 Actually the STS SPE can begin any, where within an STS-1 envelope Figure 66 shows an SPE beginning in one STS-1 frame and ending in the next frame The line overhead bytes (H1 and H2) represent an offset in bytes within the gross payload area The H1 and H2 bytes are allocated to a pointer that indicates the offset in bytes between the pointer and the first byte of the STS SPE The H3
Six
byte is used to compensate for clocking differences; that is, when a source clock is fast with respect to the STS-1 clock, the H3 byte can be used, permitting one payload byte from the SPE to be placed into the H3 byte When this occurs, special coding is placed into byte locations H1 and H2 As you examine the SPE positioning within the STS-1 frame shown in Fig 66, note that the first path overhead byte has the designator J1 Because the payload wraps around to the next row the second path over, head byte, designated B3, is aligned by column directly below the first path overhead byte Similarly the third path overhead byte is aligned , under the second one, and so on
OVERHEAD BYTES
One of the key advantages of SONET and SDH as well as a key disadvantage of each is their structured hierarchy The key advantages of the structured hierarchy facilitates OAM&P operations Other advantages include the fact that an upgrade from one hierarchy to another as well as the multiplexing of lower layers into a higher layer are relatively simple time division multiplexing operations Unfortunately the price of these advantages is in the overhead associated with the , need for section, line, and path overhead bytes As we noted earlier each , STS-1 frame of 810 bytes has only 774 bytes available for the actual pay-
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