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Figure 610 Point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations
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accomplished through the insertion of an add/drop multiplexer (ADM) into the point-to-point network configuration An example of a pointto-multipoint network configuration is shown in the lower portion of Figure 610 Note that the ADM can be a node on the network or can be routed to another multiplexer via a point-to-point network configuration The advantage of the ADM is that it allows DS and E carrier signals to be added or removed without having to first demultiplex, then add or drop channels and then remultiplex data This capability results from the fact that SONET and SDH frames include pointers that denote the location of signals within the frame In addition to point-topoint and point-to-multipoint network configurations, both SONET SDH support hub and star network configurations Thus, let s take a look at those two network configurations HUB A hub network configuration in a SONET or SDH environment is similar to that of a LAN hub, in which the hub represents the focal point or star where a collection of point-to-point connections terminate However, unlike a LAN hub, a SONET or SDH hub employs a digital access and cross-connect system (DACCS) to route data between individual point-to-point lines Figure 611 provides an example of a SONET or SDH hub-based network configuration Because all data flow through the DACCS, this system provides the capability to monitor network performance and utilization from a single location Because the DACCS functions as both a switch and an add/drop multiplexer it is ideal for , supporting unexpected network growth as well as affording the capability to restructure the configuration of a network to meet changing subscriber requirements Now that we are acquainted with the hub or star configuration, we will conclude our examination of SONET and SDH network configurations by turning our attention to the ring RING If you pick up a trade publication, you will probably encounter one or more communications carrier advertisements that discuss their ability to almost instantaneously compensate for an outage What they are referring to is survivability, which was one of the design goals of SONET and SDH To accomplish this goal, both technologies support a self-healing feature that enables a fiber cut to be immediately recognized and compensated for by switching traffic onto a different path formed by a ring structure The alternate path is built into one design
Fiber in the W AN
R PTTM
Figure 611 A hub or star network configuration
PTTM
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Digital Access and Cross-Connect System Path Terminating Terminal Multiplexer Repeater
for SONET and SDH However, there are two types of rings: a pathswitched ring, which switches individual paths, and a line-switched ring, which switches the entire capacity of the optical line The key differences between the two ring topologies are the number of fibers used and the resulting cost of the ring A path-switched ring uses two fibers and is less expensive to construct than a line-switched ring, which can use either two or four fibers As we examine each type of ring, we will note that a line-switched ring can provide an additional level of switching capability over a path-switched ring
PATH-SWITCHED RING A path-switched ring uses two fibers to form a concentric ring through the routing of point-to-point lines connecting individual nodes within a network For each path between two nodes data are transmitted in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions, resulting in the term bidirectional ring used to refer to a path-switched ring configuration Each receiving section in each node monitors both signals and selects the better one Thus, any break in a signal between a pair of nodes allows the receiver to select the other fiber as a mechanism to continue operations LINE-SWITCHED RING In comparison to path switching, a line-switching
topology provides the capability to switch paths at any node within a ring if a fiber failure occurs Thus, a line-switching ring enables switching at
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