qr code size in c# Telephone Company End or Central Office subscriber line or local loop in Objective-C

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Telephone Company End or Central Office subscriber line or local loop
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As a phone call is routed through one or more telephone networks, it will eventually flow to a central office That office directly serves subscribers and routes calls to each subscriber via a copper twisted-pair wire Because the central office is the last or end office in the hierarchy of telephone company offices, it is also commonly referred to as an end office The twisted-pair wire installed from the end office to each subscriber is referred to as a subscriber line or local loop Each central or end office originally supported an individual threedigit exchange prefix, such as 477 Because four digits follow the prefix, this scheme resulted in an end office servicing a maximum of 10,000 subscribers With advances in technology switches installed in central , offices in metropolitan locations may serve subscribers with 10 or more telephone number prefixes However, the basic structure of the local loop has not changed
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Because of economics, the local loop originating from a subscriber may not directly flow on an individual twisted pair to a telephone company central office Instead, subscriber lines are typically routed to a neighborhood location where a number of subscriber lines are either bundled together for routing to the serving telephone company central office or are multiplexed to that office THE FEEDER DISTRIBUTION INTERFACE Bundling that occurs at the location where individual wire pairs are grouped together is referred to as a feeder distribution interface (FDI) At the FDI, up to 1000 and possibly more individual twisted-pair wires are bundled and routed to a central office The top portion of Figure 72 illustrates the use of an FDI to interconnect a grouping of residential and business subscribers located within a neighborhood to a telephone company central office In examining the top portion of Figure 72, note that through the use of a bundle of copper pairs routed from the FDI to the central office, only one right-of-way is required In addition, because a common path is used between the FDI and the central office, it is easier and less costly to route the bundled copper
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Home/ Office FDI copper bundle Central Office T1/E1 Home/ Office DLC RT twisted pair twisted pair
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Figure 72 Local loop connection options
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Legend: FDI Feeder Distribution Interface DLC Digital Loop Carrier RT Remote Terminal
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THE DIGITAL LOOP CARRIER REMOTE TERMINAL A second method commonly used to connect a large number of subscribers to a central office involves the use of a copper-based T1 or E1 transmission lines In this method subscriber lines are first routed to a digital loop carrier (DLC), which represents an intermediate location between a group of subscribers and the central office In telephone company terminology , these intermediate locations are referred to as remote terminals (RTs) Thus, the second method used to connect a large number of subscribers to a central office is referred to as digital loop carrier remote terminal (DLC RT), which is illustrated in the lower portion of Figure 72 Depending on the type of copper-based line routed to the DLC RT either 24 or 30 voice , channels can be supported The T1 line supports 24 voice channels, while the E1 supports 30 The use of a DLC considerably reduces the cost associated with supporting subscribers since it enables groups of 24 or 30 subscribers to be serviced via a common T1 or E1 transmission facility Unfortunately the , use of a DLC has a major disadvantage To understand this disadvantage, we must briefly review the method by which T1 and E1 transmission facilities operate That method is based on time division multiplexing LIMITATIONS OF TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (TDM) Figure 73 illustrates the use of a T1 multiplexer to transport 24-voice conversations over a common twisted-pair wire In examining this figure,
Figure 73 Using a T1 multiplexer
one T1 frame 1 C T1 MUX C Channel 24 Channel 2
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Channel 1
Legend: C Coder/decoder F Framing bit
note that the coder portion of the coder/decoder represents a module that converts an analog voice signal into a pulse-code modulation (PCM) digitized voice signal The PCM digitized signal results from samples of the analog voice signal occurring 8000 times per second and each sample being converted into an 8-bit value Thus, the data transmission rate of each digitized voice conversation represents a 64-kbit/s data stream In the opposite direction, the decoder portion of the coder/decoder converts the digital signal back into its equivalent analog signal In examining the use of the T1 multiplexer shown in Figure 73, note that 24 voice inputs are digitized A basic T1 frame consists of one 8-bit sample from each of the 24 voice channels plus a 1-bit framing bit that provides synchronization between T1 multiplexers Thus, the operating rate of the T1 circuit becomes 193 bits/frame 8000 frames/s, or 1544 Mbits/s In an era of increasing use of broadband communications, such as digital subscriber lines (DSLs), the use of T1 and E1 circuits to interconnect a central office to a DLC RT located within a neighborhood represents a problem That problem is one of capacity A DSL typically provides a transmission rate of a minimum of 640 kbits/s in the downstream direction from the telephone company central office to the subscriber, while transmission in the uplink direction from the subscriber to the telephone company normally occurs at a minimum rate of 160 kbits/s To obtain this transmission capacity a DSL modem , modulates data at frequencies beyond the 0- to 4-kHz range used by human voice Today telephone companies support over 10 types of DSL products, with most operating by splitting the bandwidth of the twisted-pair wire into two distinct channels beyond the 0 to 4 kHz used to transport
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