C++ from the Ground Up in .NET framework

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C++ from the Ground Up
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try { cout << "Enter numerator and denominator: "; cin >> a >> b; if(!b) throw MyException("Cannot divide by zero!"); else cout << "Quotient is " << a/b << "\n"; } catch (MyException e) { // catch an error cout << estr_what << "\n"; } return 0; }
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Enter numerator and denominator: 10 0 Cannot divide by zero!
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The program prompts the user for a numerator and denominator If the denominator is zero, an object of the class MyException is created that indicates the divide-by-zero error Thus, MyException encapsulates information about the error This information is then used by the exception handler to tell the user what happened Of course, most real-world exception classes will be more sophisticated than MyException In general, you will want to create exception classes that encapsulate sufficient information about an error to enable the exception handler to respond effectively, possibly rectifying the situation
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Using Multiple catch Statements
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As stated earlier, you can associate more than one catch statement with a try In fact, it is common to do so However, each catch must catch a different type of exception For example, the program shown here catches both integers and character pointers:
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Exception Handling
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#include <iostream> using namespace std; // Different types of exceptions can be caught void Xhandler(int test) { try{ if(test) throw test; else throw "Value is zero"; } catch(int i) { cout << "Caught One! Ex #: " << i << '\n'; } catch(char *str) { cout << "Caught a string: "; cout << str << '\n'; } } int main() { cout << "start\n"; Xhandler(1); Xhandler(2); Xhandler(0); Xhandler(3); cout << "end"; return 0; }
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This program produces the following output:
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start Caught Caught Caught Caught end
One! Ex One! Ex a string: One! Ex
#: 1 #: 2 Value is zero #: 3
As you can see, each catch statement responds only to its own type In general, catch expressions are checked in the order in which they occur in a program Only a matching statement is executed All other catch blocks are ignored
Catching Base Class Exceptions
There is one important point about multiple catch statements that relates to derived classes A catch clause for a base class will also match any class derived from that base Thus, if you want to catch exceptions of both a base class type and a derived class type, put the derived class first in the catch sequence If you don t, then the
C++ from the Ground Up
base class catch will also catch all derived classes For example, consider the following program:
// Catching derived classes #include <iostream> using namespace std; class B { }; class D: public B { }; int main() { D derived; try { throw derived; } catch(B b) { cout << "Caught a base class\n"; } catch(D d) { cout << "This won't execute\n"; } return 0; }
Here, because derived is an object that has B as a base class, it will be caught by the first catch clause, and the second clause will never execute Some compilers will flag this condition with a warning message Others may issue an error Either way, to fix this condition, reverse the order of the catch clauses
Options for Exception Handling
There are several additional features and nuances to C++ exception handling that make it easier and more convenient to use These attributes are discussed here
Catching All Exceptions
In some circumstances, you will want an exception handler to catch all exceptions, instead of just a certain type This is easy to accomplish Simply use this form of catch: catch() { // process all exceptions } Here, the ellipsis matches any type of data The following program illustrates catch():
Exception Handling
// This example catches all exceptions #include <iostream> using namespace std; void Xhandler(int test) { try{ if(test==0) throw test; // throw int if(test==1) throw 'a'; // throw char if(test==2) throw 12323; // throw double } catch() { // catch all exceptions cout << "Caught One!\n"; } } int main() { cout << "start\n"; Xhandler(0); Xhandler(1); Xhandler(2); cout << "end"; return 0; }
This program displays the following output:
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