The C++ I/O System in VS .NET

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The C++ I/O System
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int x, y, z; // 3-D coordinates public: three_d(int a, int b, int c) { x = a; y = b; z = c; } friend ostream &operator<<(ostream &stream, three_d obj); friend istream &operator>>(istream &stream, three_d &obj); } ; // Display X, Y, Z coordinates - three_d inserter ostream &operator<<(ostream &stream, three_d obj) { stream << objx << ", "; stream << objy << ", "; stream << objz << "\n"; return stream; // return the stream } // Get three dimensional values - three_d extractor istream &operator>>(istream &stream, three_d &obj) { cout << "Enter X,Y,Z values: "; stream >> objx >> objy >> objz; return stream; } int main() { three_d a(1, 2, 3); cout << a; cin >> a; cout << a; return 0; }
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Like inserters, extractor functions cannot be members of the class they are designed to operate upon They can be friends or simply independent functions Except for the fact that you must return a reference to an object of type istream, you can do anything you like inside an extractor function However, for the sake of structure and clarity, it is best to use extractors only for input operations
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C I/O Versus C++ I/O
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As you may know, C++ s predecessor, C, has one of the most flexible yet powerful I/O systems of any of the structured languages (In fact, it may be safe to say that among the world s structured programming languages, C s I/O system is unparalleled) Given the power of C s I/O functions, you might be asking yourself why C++ defined its own I/O system, since for the most part it duplicates the one already contained in C The answer is that the C I/O system provides no support for user-defined objects For example, if you create the following structure in C:
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struct my_struct { int count; char s[80]; double balance; } cust;
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there is no way to customize or extend C s I/O system so that it knows about, and can perform I/O operations directly on, an object of type my_struct However, since objects are at the core of object-oriented programming, it makes sense that C++ has an I/O system that can be made aware of objects that you create Thus, a new, object-oriented I/O system was invented for C++ As you have seen, C++ s approach to I/O allows you to overload the << and >> operators so that they know about classes that you create One other point: Because C++ is a superset of C, all of C s I/O system is included in C++ (See Appendix A for an overview of C-based I/O) Therefore, if you are migrating C programs to C++, you won t have to change all the I/O statements immediately The C-based statements will still compile and run It is just that C-based I/O has no object-oriented capabilities
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Formatted I/O
Up to this point, the format for inputting or outputting information has been left to the defaults provided by the C++ I/O system However, you can precisely control the format of your data in either of two ways The first way uses member functions of the ios class The second way uses a special type of function called a manipulator We will begin by looking at formatting that uses the ios member functions
Formatting with the ios Member Functions
Each stream has associated with it a set of format flags that control the way information is formatted by a stream The ios class declares a bitmask enumeration called fmtflags, in which the following values are defined (Technically, these values are defined within ios_base, which, as explained earlier, is a base class for ios)
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