C++ from the Ground Up in VS .NET

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C++ from the Ground Up
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Storing Class Objects in a Map
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Like all of the containers, you can use a map to store objects of types that you create For example, the next program creates a simple dictionary That is, it creates a map of words with their meanings To do this, it creates two classes, called word and meaning Since a map maintains a sorted list of keys, the program also defines the < operator for objects of type word In general, you should define the < operator for any classes that you will use as keys (Some compilers may require that additional comparison operators be defined)
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// Use a map to create a dictionary #include <iostream> #include <map> #include <cstring> using namespace std; class word { char str[20]; public: word() { strcpy(str, ""); } word(char *s) { strcpy(str, s); } char *get() { return str; } }; // must define less than relative to word objects bool operator<(word a, word b) { return strcmp(aget(), bget()) < 0; } class meaning { char str[80]; public: meaning() { strcmp(str, ""); } meaning(char *s) { strcpy(str, s); } char *get() { return str; } };
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int main() { map<word, meaning> dictionary; // put words and meanings into map dictionaryinsert(pair<word, meaning>(word("house"), meaning("A place of dwelling"))); dictionaryinsert(pair<word, meaning>(word("keyboard"), meaning("An input device"))); dictionaryinsert(pair<word, meaning>(word("programming"), meaning("The act of writing a program"))); dictionaryinsert(pair<word, meaning>(word("STL"), meaning("Standard Template Library")));
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Introducing the Standard Template Library
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// given a word, find meaning char str[80]; cout << "Enter word: "; cin >> str; map<word, meaning>::iterator p; p = dictionaryfind(word(str)); if(p != dictionaryend()) cout << "Definition: " << p->secondget(); else cout << "Word not in dictionary\n"; return 0; }
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Enter word: house Definition: A place of dwelling
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In the program, each entry in the map is a character array that holds a null-terminated string Later in this chapter, you will see an easier way to write this program that uses the standard string type
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Algorithms
Algorithms act on containers Although each container provides support for its own basic operations, the standard algorithms provide more extended or complex actions They also allow you to work with two different types of containers at the same time To have access to the STL algorithms, you must include <algorithm> in your program The STL defines a large number of algorithms, which are summarized in Table 21-5 All of the algorithms are template functions This means that they can be applied to any type of container The following sections explore a representative sample Algorithm
adjacent_find binary_search copy copy_backward count
Purpose
Searches for adjacent matching elements within a sequence and returns an iterator to the first match Performs a binary search on an ordered sequence Copies a sequence Same as copy( ) except that it moves the elements from the end of the sequence first Returns the number of elements in the sequence Returns the number of elements in the sequence that satisfy some predicate Determines if two ranges are the same
The STL Algorithms
count_if equal
Table 21-5
C++ from the Ground Up
Algorithm
equal_range fill and fill_n find find_end find_first_of find_if for_each generate and generate_n includes inplace_merge iter_swap lexicographical_compare lower_bound make_heap max max_element merge min min_element mismatch next_permutation nth_element
Purpose
Returns a range in which an element can be inserted into a sequence without disrupting the ordering of the sequence Fills a range with the specified value Searches a range for a value and returns an iterator to the first occurrence of the element Searches a range for a subsequence It returns an iterator to the end of the subsequence within the range Finds the first element within a sequence that matches an element within a range Searches a range for an element for which a user-defined unary predicate returns true Applies a function to a range of elements Assign elements in a range the values returned by a generator function Determines if one sequence includes all of the elements in another sequence Merges a range with another range Both ranges must be sorted in increasing order The resulting sequence is sorted Exchanges the values pointed to by its two iterator arguments Alphabetically compares one sequence with another Finds the first point in the sequence that is not less than a specified value Constructs a heap from a sequence Returns the maximum of two values Returns an iterator to the maximum element within a range Merges two ordered sequences, placing the result into a third sequence Returns the minimum of two values Returns an iterator to the minimum element within a range Finds first mismatch between the elements in two sequences Iterators to the two elements are returned Constructs next permutation of a sequence Arranges a sequence such that all elements less than a specified element E come before that element and all elements greater than E come after it Sorts a range Sorts a range and then copies as many elements as will fit into a resulting sequence
The STL Algorithms (continued)
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