Basic String Manipulations in Visual Studio .NET

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To assign one string to another, use the assign( ) function Two of its forms are shown here: string &assign(const string &strob, size_type start, size_type num); string &assign(const char *str, size_type num); In the first form, num characters from strob, beginning at the index specified by start, will be assigned to the invoking object In the second form, the first num characters of the null-terminated string str are assigned to the invoking object In each case, a reference to the invoking object is returned Of course, it is much easier to use the = to assign one entire string to another You will need to use the assign( ) function only when assigning a partial string You can append part of one string to another by using the append( ) member function Two of its forms are shown here: string &append(const string &strob, size_type start, size_type num); string &append(const char *str, size_type num); Here, num characters from strob, beginning at the index specified by start, will be appended to the invoking object In the second form, the first num characters of the null-terminated string str are appended to the invoking object In each case, a reference to the invoking object is returned Of course, it is much easier to use the + to append one entire string to another You will need to use the append( ) function only when appending a partial string
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You can insert or replace characters within a string by using insert( ) and replace( ) The prototypes for their most common forms are shown here: string &insert(size_type start, const string &strob); string &insert(size_type start, const string &strob, size_type insStart, size_type num); string &replace(size_type start, size_type num, const string &strob); string &replace(size_type start, size_type orgNum, const string &strob, size_type replaceStart, size_type replaceNum); The first form of insert( ) inserts strob into the invoking string at the index specified by start The second form of the insert( ) function inserts num characters from strob, beginning at insStart, into the invoking string at the index specified by start Beginning at start, the first form of replace( ) replaces num characters from the invoking string, with strob The second form replaces orgNum characters, beginning at start, in the invoking string with replaceNum characters from the string specified by strob, beginning at replaceStart In both cases, a reference to the invoking object is returned You can remove characters from a string by using erase( ) One of its forms is shown here: string &erase(size_type start = 0, size_type num = npos); This removes num characters from the invoking string, beginning at start A reference to the invoking string is returned The following program demonstrates the insert( ), erase( ), and replace( ) functions:
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// Demonstrate insert(), erase(), and replace() #include <iostream> #include <string> using namespace std; int main() { string str1("This is a test"); string str2("ABCDEFG"); cout << "Initial strings:\n"; cout << "str1: " << str1 << endl; cout << "str2: " << str2 << "\n\n"; // demonstrate insert() cout << "Insert str2 into str1:\n"; str1insert(5, str2); cout << str1 << "\n\n"; // demonstrate erase() cout << "Remove 7 characters from str1:\n";
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Introducing the Standard Template Library
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str1erase(5, 7); cout << str1 <<"\n\n"; // demonstrate replace cout << "Replace 2 characters in str1 with str2:\n"; str1replace(5, 2, str2); cout << str1 << endl; return 0; }
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The output produced by this program is shown here:
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Initial strings: str1: This is a test str2: ABCDEFG Insert str2 into str1: This ABCDEFGis a test Remove 7 characters from str1: This is a test Replace 2 characters in str1 with str2: This ABCDEFG a test
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The string class provides several member functions that search a string, including find( ) and rfind( ) Here are the prototypes for the most common versions of these functions: size_type find(const string &strob, size_type start=0) const; size_type rfind(const string &strob, size_type start=npos) const; Beginning at start, find( ) searches the invoking string for the first occurrence of the string contained in strob If found, find( ) returns the index at which the match occurs within the invoking string If no match is found, then npos is returned rfind( ) is the opposite of find( ) Beginning at start, it searches the invoking string in the reverse direction for the first occurrence of the string contained in strob (ie, it finds the last occurrence of strob within the invoking string) If found, rfind( ) returns the index at which the match occurs within the invoking string If no match is found, npos is returned Here is a short example that uses find( ):
#include <iostream> #include <string> using namespace std; int main() { int i;
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