The Basic Data Types in Visual Studio .NET

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The Basic Data Types
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char unsigned char signed char int unsigned int signed int short int unsigned short int All Possible Combinations of the Basic Types and Modifiers in C++, Along With Their Common Bit Lengths and Ranges for a 16-bit Environment signed short int long int unsigned long int signed long int float double long double bool wchar_t
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Bit Width
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8 8 8 16 16 16 16 16 16 32 32 32 32 64 80 N/A 16
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128 to 127 0 to 255 128 to 127 32,768 to 32,767 0 to 65,535 32,768 to 32,767 same as int same as unsigned int same as short int 2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 0 to 4,294,967,295 2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 34E 38 to 34E+38 17E 308 to 17E+308 34E 4932 to 11E+4932 true or false 0 to 65,535
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Table 3-2a
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Although it is allowed, the use of signed on integers is redundant because the default declaration assumes a signed value Technically, whether char is signed or unsigned by default is implementation-defined However, for most compilers, char is signed In these environments, the use of signed on char is also redundant For the rest of this book, it will be assumed that chars are signed entities The difference between signed and unsigned integers is in the way the high-order bit of the integer is interpreted If a signed integer is specified, then the C++ compiler will generate code that assumes that the high-order bit of an integer is to be used as a sign flag If the sign flag is 0, then the number is positive; if it is 1, then the number is negative Negative numbers are almost always represented using the two s complement approach In this method, all bits in the number are reversed, and then 1 is added to this number Signed integers are important for a great many algorithms, but they have only half the absolute magnitude of their unsigned relatives For example, assuming 16-bit integers, here is 32,767: 01111111 11111111
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Type
char unsigned char signed char int unsigned int signed int short int unsigned short int All Possible Combinations of the Basic Types and Modifiers in C++, Along With Their Common Bit Lengths and Ranges for a 32-bit Environment signed short int long int unsigned long int signed long int float double long double bool wchar_t
Bit Width
8 8 8 32 32 32 16 16 16 32 32 32 32 64 80 N/A 16
Common Range
128 to 127 0 to 255 128 to 127 2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 0 to 4,294,967,295 2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 32,768 to 32,767 0 to 65,535 32,768 to 32,767 Same as int Same as unsigned int Same as signed int 34E 38 to 34E+38 17E 308 to 17E+308 34E 4932 to 11E+4932 true or false 0 to 65,535
Table 3-2b
For a signed value, if the high-order bit were set to 1, the number would then be interpreted as 1 (assuming the two s complement format) However, if you declared this to be an unsigned int, then when the high-order bit was set to 1, the number would become 65,535 To understand the difference between the way that signed and unsigned integers are interpreted by C++, you should run this short program now:
#include <iostream> using namespace std; /* This program shows the difference between signed and unsigned integers */ int main() { short int i; // a signed short integer short unsigned int j; // an unsigned short integer j = 60000;
The Basic Data Types
i = j; cout << i << " " << j; return 0; }
When this program is run, the output is 5536 60000 This is because the bit pattern that represents 60,000 as a short unsigned integer is interpreted as 5,536 by a short signed integer C++ allows a shorthand notation for declaring unsigned, short, or long integers You can simply use the word unsigned, short, or long, without the int The int is implied For example, the following two statements both declare unsigned integer variables
unsigned x; unsigned int y;
Variables of type char can be used to hold values other than just the ASCII character set A char variable can also be used as a "small" integer with the range 128 through 127, and it can be used in place of an integer when the situation does not require larger numbers For example, the following program uses a char variable to control the loop that prints the alphabet on the screen:
// This program prints the alphabet in reverse order #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { char letter; for(letter = 'Z'; letter >= 'A'; letter--) cout << letter; return 0; }
If the for loop seems weird to you, keep in mind that the character A is represented inside the computer as a number, and that the values from A to Z are sequential, in ascending order
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